· BEV (Battery ElectricVehicle): BEVs are vehicles that use an electric motor as the powertrainsystem. The electricity needed to run the motor isstored in a battery. The battery ischarged through electric charging points which may be located in a public or private chargingstation.
· PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle): PHEVs have a hybridpowertrain system which includes an ICE (Internal combustion Engine) and anelectric motor. The ICE uses conventional fuel (gasoline for instance) tooperate while the electric motor uses the electricity stored in the battery tooperate. The battery can be charged viaan electric charging point like BEVs. A PHEV then can run in ICE mode or electric motor mode.· FCV (Fuel-Cell Vehicle):FCVs are electric vehicles that operate based on an electric motor. The electricity input to the motor is generated in a fuel cell that uses hydrogenas input.
FCVs are fueled by a hydrogenrefueling stations (HRSs) and have tanks on the vehicle to store hydrogen. EVs have less air and noise pollution, emit less GHGemissions and have lower user costs per km compared to ICEVs, and can also leadto an increase in the share of renewable energy in a country/jurisdiction 9. EVs are also more efficient than ICEVs because of their electricpowertrain system.
As a result,EVs not only contribute to the reduction in GHG emissions from the transportation sector and can be used as apromising solution to address climate change issues, they can also be used toaddress the issue of local air pollution. Electrification of transportationsector will also decrease the primary consumption because of the increase inthe well-to-wheel efficiency of an electric powertrain system compared to anICE system 6.Electrifyingthe transportation sector means there will be a lower need for oil products. Theelectricity needed to fuel the alternative fuel vehicles may be generated from different resources. This means that electrifying the transportationsector reduces the dependency on oilproducts and covers the need for oil products with other resources.
So as theprimary energy needed for transportation sector can be supplied from different energy sources, energy supply securityand flexibility will increase 6.Although there is a worldwideagreement on the need for decreasing the amount of CO2 emissionreduction, the development of low-emission technologies has several barriersthe most important of which is their higher cost compared to conventionaltechnologies. Additional to higher cost, EVs also face the problem of rangeanxiety for customers.To overcomethis hurdle, countries/jurisdictions allover the world have established programs to support the widespread deploymentof EVs and development of their charging/refueling infrastructure. But while wehave observed an increase in the adoption of EVs in recent years, there isstill a need for policies for promoting further deployment of EVs.
Thesepolicies should be presented in differentforms such as financial incentives, support for technologicalprogress and incentives for charging/refueling infrastructure 10.Although EVs generally have lower variable cost than ICEVs,this can’t cover the issue of higher upfront cost 9.Allocating incentives for the purchase ofelectric vehicles tries to address the higher cost challenge.
Developingsufficient charging and refueling infrastructure is also aimed at addressingthe anxiety range challenge. Other factors suchas lack of knowledge about new technologies may also contribute to slowdeployment of EVs. However, we are notfocusing on these social factors in thiswork as they are found to be of a lower degree of importance compared totechnological issues 15.It is generally accepted that the widespreaddeployment of electric vehicles needs fiscal incentives at least in the earlystages of adoption. These fiscal incentives and regulations may be provided in different forms such as purchasesubsidy, emission regulation, and Rfunds.Theimportant point in the analysis of thepolicies for BEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs isthat the effect of support policies for each of these technologies is notlimited to that technology and will also affect the deployment of others.
Harrison and Thiel 11 statethat maturity of FCVs may be prohibited if a strong policy for chargeableelectric vehicles is in place. In thiswork, we are reviewing subsidies for both infrastructure and vehicle deploymentfor countries that have incentives for BEVs and PHEVs as well as FCVs. Theincentives considered in this work are purchase subsidies for BEVs, PHEVs, andFCVs. Regarding the charging/refueling infrastructure, we are reviewing howlocal governments support and contribute to the development of thecharging/refueling infrastructure. A qualitative analysis is then presentedbased on the review of the policies.
Review of support policiesThere are a considerable number of countries which havesupport policies for deployment of EVs and PHEVs,but in this work, we are consideringcountries that have incentives and support policy for both EV/PHEVs and FCVs. The countries/jurisdictions considered inthis work are from three geographical areas: East Asia, Europe, and NorthAmerica. The tencountries/jurisdictions investigated in this work are as follows:· East Asia: Japan, Republicof Korea, China· Europe: Germany, France,UK, Norway, Denmark, Sweden· North America: state ofCalifornia