1.0IntroductionA dental practice in Barnsleycentre located on Huddersfield Road is soon to be sold by the owner, thereforethe structure requires a report concerning the current condition of theexternal face of the dwelling. If any problems are found with the building,remedial works and actions are to be suggested in order to help the client fixthe problems and be able to go through with selling the property. It is vitalthat the solutions put forward in the report all conform to BuildingRegulations and comply with Health and Safety requirements. First of all, thefirst aspect of the building which has been analysed are the external envelope,which is essentially the outer shell of the structure; this consists ofVictorian blockwork.
The second aspect of the building that is included in thereport is the structure of the roofing components and the choice of cladding.The third and final building components assessed in the report is thefenestration, which is ultimately the windows and doors. There is an additionalpart to this report entailing the history behind listed buildings, the processof listing a building and conserving it over time and the different gradesthese buildings are labelled under. Inspection LimitationsIt should be notified prior toreading the report that there were a few constraints and limitations in inspectingthe structure. Roof access was not permitted, which did not allow a detailedinspection to the roof and the cladding on the roof.
This also meant thatmasonry and the external envelope at higher levels could not be inspectedextensively. Finally, the inspection was purely down to visual interpretationsand therefore the prognosis and pathology of the problems and defects on thebuilding may not be entirely accurate. In spite of this, the remedial workrecommended is in accordance with the visual interpretations and assumptionsmade. 2.0External Masonry EnvelopeThe external shell of thestructure is made up from Ashlar sandstone, and considering this structure is aVictorian building erected in the 19th Century, it has withstood aconsiderable amount of weathering over the years. There are very minor signs onthe external blockwork indicating that the building has suffered from a slightcase of efflorescence or salt crystallisation.
The salt discolours the face ofthe blocks and alters the aesthetic appearance slightly but it is nothingmajor. The best remedy for efflorescence is time, but sandblasting or pressurewashing is more effective. However, with a case of efflorescence as minor asthis, it is recommended that it is left to diminish itself over time. It isapparent that damp or excess moisture is a problem on this structure too andrequires attention. The perimeter of the building shows signs of damp at theground level, and in some areas there are green moss prevalent on the face ofthe Ashlar blockwork which can encourage boring insects to attack the areas. Moisturecontent at a low percentage is healthy or not particularly detrimental for theexternal leaf of a building, however moisture readings indicate this envelopeis around 23% (see Figure 1).
This is high, which can be indicated from the redlight which signifies 23% is an abnormally high reading. (Figure 1) It can be seen that there isno damp proof course on the dwelling, and considering that the dwelling wasbuilt in the 19th Century, it makes sense that there is nonepresent. This is the principle reason for damp on the building, therefore it ishighly recommended that a damp proof course should be injected into the wall toprevent further rising damp. Permagard (2016) tell us that:”Damp proof creams are scientificallyformulated to penetrate deep inside the building material. They have aconsistency that allows the active ingredient, silane, to be absorbed into thesubstrate both vertically and horizontally without running out.
The silane thenlines the capillaries before curing to create a water repellent barrier”A damp proof course creaminjected into the wall is the most advisable and effective solution to allkinds of damp, and would benefit the wellbeing of this structure for many yearsto come.The pointing between theblockwork can be identified as ribbon pointing, which appears to have beenrepointed several times over the years with a cement-based mortar. This can beat fault for the build-up of excess moisture. Building Conservation (2007)state that:”Theuse of cement mortars is widely recognised as being detrimental to suchbuildings and structures as they can drastically alter the way in which a wallhandles water and water vapour. Cement mortars tend to have a consistent and’closed’ pore structure that traps water rather than allowing the building tobreathe (not necessarily a problem in modern cavity wall construction)”.
The dental practice is a 19thCentury building, therefore does not have a cavity walling structure, which iswhy the pointing is so vitally important to the wellbeing and stability of thewall. Some areas of the blockwork are currently in fine condition, and it isnot necessary to repoint the whole structure. However, in order to prevent severe cases ofdamp, it would mean no harm to repoint the wall with lime mortars where it isrequired the most. Lime mortar is vitalin preventing water ingress and plays a key role in the movement of thestructure over its lifetime, which is why it should not be ignored. When owninga listed or older property, it is one of the most important aspects formaintaining; as it can be a source of mold, damp and leaks, which can causesignificant damage to the structure over time (Limetec, 2017). Thisprocedure is recommended for both the wellbeing and the aesthetical aspects ofthe façade. Figure2- DampFigure3 – Ribbon Pointing 3.
0Roof Structure and CladdingThe roofing structure appearsto be quite stable and currently in reasonable condition with the exception ofa few chipped and cracked roof tiles. The problem regarding this is theaesthetic aspect of the roof as it looks slightly rundown. (Figure 4- Missing Tiles) The only recommendable remedyfor this is to relay the roofing tiles. It is strongly advisable that this isconducted since further cracking and chipping could allow penetration ofrainwater through to the roofing members. Consequently, this could lead todamp, dry rot or other severe timber infections. The procedure is veryeffective and simple in concern to building regulations as recovering less than25 per cent of the area of a pitched roof means a building application is notrequired PlanningPortal (2017). Considering that 25 per cent is a quarter ofthe area of the roof, this permits the dental practice roof to be recoveredwithout the need for building regulations applications, as far less than 25 percent of tiles are damaged.It is also evident from thenaked eye that there is no soffit on the roof structure, which indicates thereis insufficient ventilation in the roofing structures.
Manthorpe BuildingProducts (2017) inform us that:”If there is insufficient ventilation thewater vapour condenses, leading to rotting timbers, the rusting of metalfixtures, felt damage and mould growth”. This could prove to beexcrementally detrimental to the structure of the roof and the build-up ofcondensation. Condensation in the compartments of the roof is natural, but toomuch can cause problems. Manthorpe Building Products (2017) state that:”Widespreaduse of central heating, double glazing and insulation can cause a temperaturedifferential between living space and the cold air outside. Warm air, carryinghigh levels of water vapour, is drawn by a process of convection to cold areasof the building including the roof void”. To deter extremities such astrusses rotting and overwhelmingly excessive condensation, it is advisable to installventilated slates from Manthorpe Building Products.
Manthorpe Hooded SlateVents are an unobtrusive, economical roof ventilator providing 10,000mm² of airflow per unit, Manthorpe Building Products (2017). The airflow of 10,000mm² perunit is permitted by building regulations, which eliminates the need to applyfor any further permission when installing the units. The units can be easilyand suitably retrofitted into the existing roof structure.
Figure 5- Slate Vent(Source: Manthorpe BuildingProducts) To therear of the building, there is an adjoining outhouse. The roof itself appearsto be sagging inwards (figure 6). This is a serious problem which needsaddressing immediately. The threemain reasons why roofs sag is: the roof materials that were installed werefaulty, the roof sustained major water damage, or there is too much weight onthe roof. (Madison Roofing, 2017). It cannot be discerned without furtherexamination which of the three reasons is the cause for the sagging in the roof,but it can be assumed from perception that water damage is partially the reasonwhy. The roof, without remedial work, will only continue to sag more and moreuntil it collapses. Considering the area of the roof on this adjoiningstructure is reasonably small, the best advice is to replace the entire roof.
Replacing or repairing individual roof members may not remedy the roof aseffectively as fitting a new roof, and it would be extremely time-consuming todo so. (Figure6- Sagging Roof)The timber fascia board on theadjoining building appears to be in a very poor condition. (See figure 7).
Thetimber just above the PVC window frames is especially in a bad state and it isclearly visible that the timber is rotting or decaying. This could prove to beperniciously damaging to the structure of the roof and the internal area of theroom. The timber, in its current state, is highly susceptible to fungal attack,insect attack and will encourage the ingress of excess moisture and rainwater.Progressively, the timber will become worse and worse mainly as a consequenceof weathering, which in turn will increase the likeliness of the timbercontracting fungal attack, insect attack and other forms of decay. For thisreason, it is advisable that the timber is replaced with timber treated withpreservatives and that the fascia boards are repainted cyclically to preventfungal attack from harming the internal roof members. This is an affordable andsimple solution to a problem which could gradually benefit the structure of theroof, so it is recommended greatly. Figure7 4.
0FenestrationTheprinciple problem concerning the fenestration on the dental practice is thefact that it is entirely uPVC. The combination of Victorian style masonry andmodern uPVC windows and doors is slightly odd and the two designs are notreally compatible with each other. The overall condition of the fenestration isin decent stead, but the style of the windows especially needs to be amended toprovide an all-round 19th century Victorian style. It is recommendedthat the building is refitted with timber framed windows and doors or modernuPVC Victorian Style windows. Roseview Windows (2017) manufacture a unique uPVC run-through sash horn,providing homeowners with an unparalleled degree of authenticity that ensuresthey benefit from historic-style sash windows that look great and performs toan excellent standard. (Source: Sash Windows UK)It should be notified that thelarge window on the structure at the rear of the building is bending inwardsslightly, potentially due to poor craftsmanship and also because of expansionand contraction in fluctuating temperatures.
It is evident that the windowurgently needs replacing because it is subject to water ingress at the cornersand the joints where it is fitted, especially if it continues to warp. Furthermore,the Upvc frame has slightly discoloured and the white has diminished leaving ayellowish tone and looking poor aesthetically. It is advised that the window isreplaced with windows manufactured by Roseview Windows too. Figure 9 – Warped Window The timber lintel above thewindow at the rear of the building is decaying and rotting really badly andrequires attention.
The paint is flaking, there are cracks in the timber and itappears that moss has begun growing on it. It is openly susceptible to fungusattack, insect attack, rotting and water penetration, thereby it needs to bereplaced. Otherwise, it could jeopardise the structural stability of the windowand be the cause for internal leaks and heavy condensation.
It is recommendedthat the timber is replaced with timber treated to repel water and that thepaint is maintained to prevent insect and fungus from attacking the flaky androtting timber. Ithas been advised that windows should be replaced with windows to suit the styleof the building. However, it is important when making amendments to an existingbuilding that Document LB1 of the Building Regulations should be taken intodeliberation.
A replacement window should achieve a minimum U-value of 1.6w/m²K. (Source: Building Regulations)The replacement windows mustalso be fire resistant and provide a means of escape of the same size theprevious window provided, (PlanningPortal, 2017). 5.0Listed Buildings Historyof Listed BuildingsThe history of listedbuildings stems back to the era of the Second World War in 1944.
Thepreservation and conservation of buildings became principally important,particularly to structures such as churches and chapels. Historic England statethat:”The listing of buildings of special architecturalor historical interest was established in the Town and Country Planning Acts of1944 and 1947. The basis for the first listing survey was the heroic war-timelists, known as ‘Salvage Lists’. These were drawn up to determine whether aparticular building should be protected from demolition if bomb damaged. It wasaround this time that a system of grading and specific criteria wereintroduced”.
Buildings erected before 1700are guaranteed to be listed, likewise buildings built between 1700-1840 aretypically listed if they are in almost intact to their original condition,(Historic England, 2017). These buildings require more care in order topreserve them, therefore certain requirements apply to them in regards to altering,amending, modifying and general construction work on them. In some cases,slight work such as decorating can cause serious consequences for theprosecutor. However, Listingis not a preservation order, preventing change to the building.
It does notfreeze a building in time, it simply means that listed building consent must beapplied for in order to make any changes to that building which might affectits special interest and cause detriment to its current state (HistoricEngland, 2017). Gradesof Listed BuildingsThere are threecategories of listed buildings, each of which determine the special interestand concern to preserving the building. Buildings are listed and given specialinterest and care to conserve due to their architectural or historicalinterest.Grade I buildings are of exceptional interest,only 2.5% of listed buildings are Grade I Grade II* buildings are particularly importantbuildings of more than special interest; 5.8% of listed buildings are Grade II*Grade II buildings are of special interest;91.
7% of all listed buildings are in this class and it is the most likely gradeof listing for a home owner. (Historic England, 2017)Grade Ilisted buildings are the array of buildings or structures that requirepreserving the most due to their exceptional interest and significance inEngland’s history. These buildings are notified for their exceptional interestdue to two factors: either it is historically significant or it isarchitecturally significant. Todetermine whether a building is listed, information is available on the EnglishHeritage website, showing history, grades and all necessary informationregarding listed buildings in the land. Process of listing a buildingIt is viable to list anybuilding in the UK upon application and considering it possesses historical orarchitectural and meets further criteria. The principles for listing a buildingconsist of 5 criteria:Age and rarityAesthetic meritsSelectivityNational InterestState of repairIf a building qualifies thesecriteria it can be listed and be updated onto the national system containingthe records of listed buildings.
If a building is in need of repair it will bestill listed despite its current condition (Secretary of State, 2010). 6.0 ConclusionIn summary of thisreport, the dental practice does in fact require a lot of attention regardingthe external envelope, the roofing and the fenestration of the building priorto being sold to the next owner. The main problem concerning the externalenvelope is the rising damp. The moisture reading halfway up the blockworkreads around 23% so one can imagine that it is considerably more towards toground. The injection of the damp proof course would benefit the buildinghugely and is recommended very strongly. Furthermore, repointing the majorityof the blockwork or the areas which require the utmost attention, is alsorecommended as this would reduce the likelihood of moisture ingress andrainwater penetration. Moisture and water ingress is a severe problem in anystructure thereby it is strongly advisable that the masonry receives immediateattention.
In concern to the roofing structure, the general condition of theroof on the main part of the building appears to be stable and currently indecent stead. There is dilapidation to numerous roof tiles, which are made fromslate. However, it should be notified that access to the roof nor internalinspection was not granted therefore this made it difficult to inspect theoverall roof area.
The recommended remedial work concerning the roof is toreplace the roof tiles. The entire roof could be relayed but this would requireplanning permission consent, therefore the most feasible solution is to relaythe tiles which only require urgent attention. It is apparent from the groundlevel that less than 25% of the roof area is covered with dilapidated tiles,which means planning permission is not required in order to replace these tileson a pitched roof. Further work regarding the roof concerns insufficientventilation which could be gradually injurious for the internal roofing membersespecially. It is general assumption that the insufficient ventilation is inconsequence to there being no soffit present on the roof. It has beenestablished in the report that the best form of remedial work for this is to installroof slate vents to allow the excess air and moisture to oscillate upwards andout of the building rather than being trapped in the internal roof area. As faras the fenestration on the building is concerned, the principle concern is withthe use of UPVC windows on a Victorian style building is not particularlycompatible.
Timber windows are one option to improve compatibility or UPVCVictorian style windows can be incorporated- either option is feasible but withconcern to the building regulations stipulated above in the report. There isalso the fact that the window at the rear is warping inwards, which ultimatelyneeds replacing. The final section of thereport highlights the history of listed buildings, the grading system which categoriseslisted buildings and the process of listing a building considering it meets thecriteria and required interest. ReferencesBuildingConservation. (2007). Pointing with Lime.
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