IntroductionPlantshave great importance in our lives as these are the source of shelter,clothing, food, flavours and much more. In medicine plants have always beenconsidered as the basis of traditional medicine system among Chinese, Unani andAyurvedic. Various bioactive compounds are synthesized by plants which make themso important in medicine, there are many plants which are medically importantas far as the presence of useful phytochemicals is concerned, and among suchmedicinal plants is wild marigold (Tagetesminuta). Plants have genes which are involved in the biosynthetic pathwaysof medically important compounds and they are producing them naturally and theenvironment also plays role in biosynthesis of those compounds. The biochemistsare looking for plants to know about compounds or new molecules of medicinalimportance which can lead to improvements in this area (Gurib-Fakim., et al 2006).Now a days a large worldpopulation prefers natural products for treatments and preventions of diseasesof several kinds. Plant extracts are known for their antibacterial, antiviral,antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Jassim and Naji 2003).
Flavonoids, a class of polyphenolsecondary metabolites, are naturally found in plants and diet. From medicinalpoint of view, they have great importance as these are very useful compoundsbecause of antiviral, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, anti-diabetic,anti-cancer and other effects (Wang et al.,2017). Flavonoids are actually derived from malonyl-CoA and the aromatic aminoacid phenylalanine approximately 8000 different flavonoid compounds have beenidentified (Yeon et al, .2014).Flavonols are secondary metabolites found in many plants whether they aregymnosperms, angiosperms, mosses, ferns and liverworts, these are found to haveantibacterial activity against super bugs. A study indicated that the extractsand isolated flavonols of T. minutahave wide range of antibacterial activity (Shahzadi and Shah, 2015).
The flavonoid biosynthethic pathway isone of the most extensively studied pathways of plant secondary metabolites (Winkel-Shirely,2001).In Arabidopsis,maize,petunia,snapdragon,apple and grape the mainstructural genes involved in flavonoid pathway have been identified andcharacterized (Huang et al.,2013).1.
1 Tagetesminuta Tagetesminuta (Wild marigold) belongs to sunflower (Asteraceae)family and has been used for chest infections, coughs and repiratoryinflammations etc. Tagetes minuta essential oil has the ability to work against bothgram-positive and gram- negative bacteria. The studies have also confirmed theantifungal activities of Tagetes minuta essential oil against Aspergilus, Penicillium and Candida species(Karimian et al., 2014). Essentialoil extracted from leaves had shown better antifungal activities against eightphytopathogenic fungi including Alternaria solani (Gakuubi et al.
1Taxonomy and Origin of Wild marigoldTagetes minuta is annual aromatic herb belonging to theAsteraceae (Compositeae) family and the genus Tagetes (Shahzadi et al., 2010; Gakuubi et al., 2016).This plant has many commonnames such as Wild marigold, mexican marigold, stinkweed, stinking roger andkhaki bush (Gakuubi et al., 2016).Wildmarigold is indigenous to the temperate forest and mountain areas of the world.It was coined in South America and spread around the globe as a weed. It hasbeen found in South Africa, Australia, Nigeria, India, Uruguay, East Africa(Kenya), Brazil, Chile, France and the Chaco region of Paraguay.
The oil ofthis plant is famous and the main “Tagetes oil” producing countries are France,Kenya, Argentina and Australia (Singh etal., 2003). In Pakistan wild marigold is naturally found in North westparts including swat and Hazara district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and it islocally named as Gul-e- Sad Barga (Shahzadi etal., 2010).1.1.
2Morphology of Wild marigoldTagetes minuta is aromatic, annual herbwith height reaching 50-150 cm (0.5-1.5m).The leaves are 3-30cm in lengh and0.7-8cm wide.
The color of leaves is dark-green to slightly glossy green andcontain 9-17 leaflets. The flowers heads are yellow in color and are arrangedin solitary clustered panicled branches (Figure 1.1).The underside of leaveshave multiple glands which produce aroma when ruptured (Gakuubi et al., 2016).