ARP – Address
Resolution Protocol: ARP is used to determine the corresponding Mac
address of a machine based on the IP address. Systems keep ARP look-up tables
that cache information about IP addresses and corresponding Mac addresses, if
the requested IP address is stored in this table, then no Request or Reply is
sent or received. The table simply returns the matching Mac address. If the
table was not able to locate a matching IP address an ARP Request is sent to every
machine requesting for the Mac address, only the matching system will return an
ARP Reply. An ARP Reply contains the IP address and the corresponding Mac
address. The ARP protocol integrates into the OSI Model at the Data Link Layer
– layer 2 or the Network interface layer of the TCP/IP Model – layer 1.


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IPv6 –
Internet Protocol Version 6: IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long and allow for
communication over the internet. IPv6 operates at the network layer, layer 3 of
the OSI Model and/or the Internet layer – layer 2 of the TCP/IP Model. IPv6 is
connectionless and unreliable protocol that is responsible for routing and
addressing between hosts. IPv6 is connectionless implying no connection is
established before information or data is transferred. IPv6 is unreliable, it
has no accountability for lost, duplicated or delayed packets. IPv6 relies on
higher protocols such as TCP to ensure reliable communication. A typical IPv6
packet contains a source address, destination address, next header, and hop
limit. The next header refers to the next extension header. Hop limit refers to
the number of “jumps” on a subnet before the packet is disregarded.





IPSec –
Internet Protocol Security: An end to end scheme that allows for private
and secure Internet Protocol (IP) communication with the use of cryptographic
security services for each packet of communication. IPSec supports data
integrity, confidentiality, and data origin authentication. IPSec operates at
the third layer of the OSI Model – Network Layer and/or the Internet layer –
layer 2 of the TCP/IP Model. IPSec protects against: network based attacks,
data integrity, data theft, and administrative control over a system. IPSec
protocol can be used to defend network attacks by using host based packet
filtering and trusted communications.





BGP – Border
Gateway Protocol: BGP is an exterior gateway protocol that exchanges routing
information with a TCP connection between autonomous systems. BGP stores
routing information that it exchanges with other BGP systems, maintaining a
database of information about other BGP known networks. BGP simply makes the
internet work. BGP is known to carry data routes for VPN, IPv6, Multicast and
other data. The latest version of BGP is version 4. BGP is a Layer 4 protocol
that sits on top of TCP. It is much simpler than OSPF, because it doesn’t have
to worry about the things that will handle. BGP also apart of the transport
layer in the TCP/IP Model.





UDP – User
Datagram Protocol: A connectionless protocol that does not
guarantee delivery of packets. Packets can arrive out of order, delayed, or
duplicated. UDP is a light-weight transport protocol that does not require the
level of service of TCP. UDP packets are sent to the user and any missed
packets will not be resent. UDP does not guarantee delivery. Once a packet is
missed it simply skips over it, this allows for faster transmission primarily
evident in video and audio. Less overhead means faster transmission times. The
UDP protocol operates at the transport layer, layer 4 of the OSI Model and/or
layer 3 of the TCP/IP Model (Transport Layer).





POP3 – Post
Office Protocol Version 3: The POP3 protocol receives emails from a remote
server via TCP/IP to a local email client. POP3 allows you to view emails
offline, once they are viewed they are removed from the email server. Therefore,
if they are accessed from another device it will appear as if the emails have
been deleted. POP3 operates in a local email client such as Outlook. POP3 works
on the following ports: 110 and 995. Port 110 is a non-encrypted port while
port 995 is secure and encrypted. Typical applications that support POP3 are:
Gmail, Outlook, iCloud, AOL, and many more. POP3 operates at the last layer in
the OSI Model  – Layer 7 and/or Layer 4
of the TCP/IP Model (Application).





HTTPS – Hyper
Text Transfer Protocol Secure: HTTPS is the secure and encrypted variant of
HTTP. HTTPS encrypts the data that is sent between the browser and website. It
is most commonly used for online banking, and online shopping where a credit
card may be needed. HTTPS incorporates the use of SSL or secure sockets layer
to encrypt the data point-to-point. SSL uses asymmetric cryptography; this form
of encryption uses a public and private key. The public key can only be
decrypted with the paired private key. In a typical request, a website will
send the SSL certificate to the browser which contains the public key. The
browser and website now begin the SSL Handshake. HTTPS operates at the highest Layer
of the OSI Model – Application layer, layer 7 and/or layer 4 of the TCP/IP
Model (Application).    





DHCP – Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol: The process by which a server will
automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of IP
addresses. Every device on a TCP/IP based network must have a unique IP to
access the network and its resources, manually adding or removing computers
from the network requires network reallocation/reclaiming. DHCP automatically
assigns and de-assigns addresses based on lease time. If a device is no longer
in use, the address is automatically returned for reallocation under DHCP. DHCP
has two main benefits: reliable IP address configuration (DHCP minimizes errors
that may be caused by manual IP address configuration) and reduced network
administration. DHCP operates at the highest level of the OSI Model – Layer 7
and/or Layer 4 of the TCP/IP Model (Application).




SLIP – Serial
Line Internet Protocol: The SLIP protocol transmits data packets in
bytes over a dial-up link to computers that have been previously configured for
communication with each other. After the last byte of data is sent, a special character
known as SLIP END is sent to notify
the device that the datagram has ended. SLIP has no standard way to define IP
addressing between two devices. SLIP offers no error recovery or error
detection. SLIP does not have the ability to authenticate. Therefore, it was
replaced with PPP – Point-to-Point protocol. The SLIP protocol operates at the
data link layer – layer 2 of the OSI Model and/or layer 1 of the TCP/IP Model
(Network Interface).





10.  ICMP –
Internet Control Message Protocol: ICMP is used for error detection and
management queries. It is used by network devices like routers to send error
messages and operation information. ICMP messages are encapsulated and sent
inside of datagrams. ICMP messages are typically sent automatically when a
packet cannot reach its destination, when a message cannot send at the current
transmission rate, or if a better route is suggested by the router. ICMP’s most
notable feature is the echo or ping command. ICMP operates at the Network layer
or layer 3 of the OSI Model and/or layer 2 of the TCP/IP Model (Internet).




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