There are great  number of molecules of herbal plants which
are used as medicines since ancient time. Among these silymarin an extract of
silybum marianum has great benefits. Silybum marianum or milk thistle plant has
medicinal biological effect. In Bible milk thistle is called “Lebanon cardus”.
Extract of silybum marianum is called silymarin.  Silymarin consists of 7 flavonogligans and a
flavonoid . The major component of of silymarin is silybin about 70%. It has
antioxidant  and anti-inflammatory power
which reduce free radicals. Silymarin is used in different liver diseases such
as cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases. virus damage liver and produce free
radicals and cause infalammation Silymarin reduce the liver damage due to its
antioxidant and ani-infalammatory power and helps immune system to work
properly and overcome virus damage. Intravenous adminstration of silymarin reduce the hepatitus
c virus infection. Silybin turn off pro-inflammatory signals which is due to
the activation of nuclear factor- Kb. Ferenci et al demonstrated that viral
replication is inhibited by silybin hence it disturb life cycle of HCV. It
inhibit RNA polymerase function of HCV . silymarin blocks entry the entry of
HCV and fusion of HCV with liposomes. Silymarin has great role in alcohlic and
non alcohlic liver dseases. Excessive use of alcohol damage liver. Alcohol
abuses cause other liver damage such as HCV. Alcohol liver damage alternate the
redox reactions of body because of alcohol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase
and aldehyde dehydrogenase reduce the NAD/NADH ratio which reduce the
mitochondrial capacity to metabolize lipids. Secondary metabolites of ethanol
metabolism cause oxidative stress and high quantity of lipds leads lipid
lypoperoxidation.Then mitochondrial membrane function lost and consequently
death of cell occur. Silybin phosphatidylcholine complex has great role in
protecting the cell. It increase the vitality of cell. It reduce the oxidative
stress and lipid per oxidaton measured by Malonaldehyde (oxidative marker). Song
et al demonstrated the effect of silybin on induced damaged lver of mice . they
took mice and give ethanol according to their body weight after every 12 hours
. alcohol increase their value of ALT . administration of silybin to mice decrease
the value of damage liver mice to normal range. Another study on mice highlight
the role of silybin on damage liver . 250mg/kg silymarine given to mice,
silymarine reduce the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ,
superoxide dismutase and catalase. Non alcohlic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is a
dsease n which lipid is accumulated in hepatocytes. NAFLD is a common
exponantional increased disease in westren countries . NAFLD is the second most
common reason of liver transplantation. NAFLD is a complex systemic syndrome in
which on set insulin resistence occur. Different experiments have conducted to
demonstrate  the effect of silymarine on
NAFLD . silymarin may be insulin sensitizer. Silybin has an important role in
decreas the fat in liver by activation of lipolysis in liver . a group of mice
was taken and high fat diet was given with silymarin . silymarin activate the
lipolysis and control the fat value in mice . cirrohsis and hepatocellular
carcinoma are the end stage of liver . silymarin has great medicinal role in
these disease as it decrease the oxidative stress. 13.

is a largest internal organ of body and performs important physiologic
functions of body. Liver detoxify harmful drug and any substance which s
dangerous for our body. When Fat deposit in liver cells (hepatocytes) of those
patients which have no history of drinking of alcohol then it is  called non-alcohlic fatty liver disease NAFLD.
It is a chronic liver disease which leads to serious diorders of liver . NAFLD
increase 90% ALT than other biomarkers of liver function . In Asia NAFLD
disease is spreading very fast. There are 5-30 % people suffer from this disease
in Asia. NAFLD is a serious step to steatohepatitis, cirrohosis and
hepatocarcinoma. Patients having high level of ALT with non-alcohlic
steatohepatitis are at risk of cirrohosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Cichorium intybus belongs to composte family.  Cichorium intybus plant is a great medicinal
plant used since ancient times . whole body parts of the plant used as
medicinal drug .among these parts root has great biological effect. It has
antioxidant power and help to detoxify free radicals. 

A clinical trial was conducted on 61 patients of 18 to 70 years in TPM
clinic and daro shfaya imam mujtaba in Iran. Shahid Beheshti university of
medical science approved this protocol of this study. Plants roots of cichorium
intybus was  taken from herbal store and
washed with water and dried . Then extract of plant roots prepared with water
as solvent. Extract of plant was concentrated and form dried powder and fill in
capsule . The placbo contains corn starch was also prepared. Two capsules was
administred to NAFLD patients for two months before 30 minutes of breakfast .
The corn starch  was also given to
placebo groups. The patients tests TG, FBS , HDL, LDL, ALT, IGT and AST was
taken before and after drugs administration. The reports was obtained from
these tests in labortary and arranged it in table form . With the help of SPSS
software two tests t-test and chi square was applied on data . After treatment
of drugs value of ALT reduced as compared to baseline p=0.03 and value of AST
reduced as compared to baseline p=0.04 . the mean value of ALT before treatment
is 77.6 and after treatment mean value is 62.3 hence it decreased the value of
ALT. The mean value of AST before treatment is 45.4 and after treatment with
cichorium intybus is 39.2 hence it decreased the value of AST. So it is proved
from above expermental study that extract of cichorium intybus play important
effective  role in non alcohlic fatty
liver disease and nonalcohlic steatohepatitis . There was no side effects seen
in drug treatment and placebo groups. 18.

3.     The current study was conducted to
decribe the important biological or medicinal effects of cichorium intybus
commonly known as kaasani. Kaasani leaves and seeds are very imprtant for
damaged liver. Kaasani or cichorium intybus act as antoxidant for free
radicals. The current study was based on experiments on rats . nitrosamines
comounds are used to damage liver . These copmpounds produce free radicals ,
reactive oxygen species and cause lipid per oxidation which result in serious
disorders of liver . liver almost face all ingested envoirnmetal toxins
and  drugs which weak liver and
ultimately leads to serious disorders of liver such as hepatitis and
cirrohosis. When these drugs taken orally , they  suffiently increase the nitrosable amines in
stomach. these compounds cause different disorders such as carcinogensis,
heaptotoxity , endocrine disturbance, reproductive function impairment and
impairment of immune system etc.

All drugs were purchased from s.a.e Mataria-Cairo-Egypt. These drugs
chlorpromazine C17 H19ClN2S and amine hydrochlorides 
were in pure form. Kaasani plant obtained from a rural place and cleaned
and washed  with water and dried in hot
air . The dried plant convert into powederd form . The powedered form of plant
stored to mix with diet.  Sodium nitrite
and chlorpromazine was given orally to experimental animals. Twenty four male
rats weightng 150-180 gram were used in experiment. These rats were taken
from Helwan anmal form Egypt. National institutes of health guide the protocol
to conduct the experment. All the rats were kept in their standard condition
i.e temperature 22 – 25 c , 12 hours light dark cycle and well vantilatd cages.
The standard diet of rats ground corn, ground beans, bran, corn oil, casien ,mineral
mixture and vitamin mixture fed with water. Twenty four animals were divided
into 4 groups. Group 1 kept as control group in standard condition, group 2 fed
with chicory supplemented , group 3 received nitrosamine precursor and
chlorpromazine orally and group 4 received both drugs nitrosamine &
chlorpromazine and chicory supplemented diet. 
These animals were kept under experiment for two months. After two
months blood collected from jugular vein and stored in tube according to laboratory
parameters for further assessment. From serum and liver tissue following
parameters i. e total lipids, total chloestrol, serum total pr otein , total
bilirunin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and
alkaline phosphatase ( ALP), lipid per oxidation glutathione content,
glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and catalase.

With the help of SPSS program  (
Statical pucteage for social science) ANOVA and student t test applied on data.
Statistical significance value was kept p < 0.05 . data was in the form of means and percentage values changes. It was concluded from above experimental study nitrosamines increased the hepatic TBARS and liver proflie I,e ALT, AST and ASP . it also increased chloestrol level , serum level and total lipid. Chicory supplemented diet helped to control ALT , AST, ASP , chloestrol , TBARS , serum level and total lipids. The control value of TBARS was 47.6  +_ 0.14, with chicory 36.4+_0.25 , with drugs Nitrosamine & chlorpromazinen was 92.5 +_0.13 and when chicory plus NaNO2 & CP was given then value 69.4 +_0.26 was obtained . hence chicory decreased TBARS value .  the control value of AST was 34.1+_2.41, when the drugs applied value was 52.4+_2.61 and when chicory plus these drugs together applied then AST value remained closed to normal I,e is 37.1+_1.21. similarly it also controlled other liver profile. From above discussion it was concluded that chicory plants helped to work liver properly. 6. 4.     Diabiteis mellitus type 2 is increasing very fast in modern era . at early age many risk factors such as chroniic depression,  stress, poisons, obesity , sedentary life style and over nutrition may are the  causes of diabities mellitus. Drugs which are used in cure of diabites mellitus  may be have side effects so scientist has tendency to seek additonial remedy . many plants have capiabilty to reduce the sugar level in blood. Among these plants cichorium  intybus commonly known as kaasani has medicinal effects for diabities mellitus. Ethanolic extract was reported to decrease the activity of hepatic glucose 6 phosphatase and increased the insulin level by stimulatng the beta cells of pancreas. The present study was conducted to decribe the medicinal effects of chicory plants on early and late stage diabeties. With the help of Dr Amin chicory seeds were purchased from a famous bazaar of Tehran, Iran. Citrate buffer and other chemicals were acquired from Fluka (USA). Chicory seeds were washed and cleaned with tap water and dried under shade then ground into powder. In every one liter of distilled water 200 grams powder of chicory seeds  dissloved and boiled to make solution. Filter the solution after cooling it with watman filter no 1 . then filtrate ( crude extract) was stored  at -20 c. the experiment was performed at albino rats of 9 old weeks , weighing 200-250 gram . all the animals were kept at their standard conditons i.e twelve hours light cycle and temperture 22+_2 c. Rats were divided into 3 groups ; one control group , 2nd group of late stage diabeties and 3rd group of early stage diabiteis. STZ was given to induce late stage diabites . for induction of early stage diabiteis an additional chemical with STZ ,  NIA (niacinamide) was used .according to the modified Masiello  method  sodium citrate buffer was used to prepare fresh injection of NIA nad STZ . drugs were injected intraperitoneaaly into body . after four days of injection signs and symptoms of diabiteis were apperaed such as polyuria and restlessness whch further confirmed by FBS measurement. Alll the the protocol was approved by Tehran university of medical sciences Review board.   Diabetic rats were assigned with crude extract of  chicory injection . this treatment was lasted for 28 days . after 28 days of treatment blood sampales were collected by sacrificing the rats . blood sampales were collectd from heart.  Blood sampals  blood fasting sugar, fasting serum enzymes activities , TG, ALT, TC , AST and total protein concentrations were analyzed  in Pathalogy lab of Shariati hospital using RANDOX, UK kit and Rat insulin ELISA kit (Mercodia Swedan). Control fasting blood sugar (FBS) value is around 77.7+_6.6 , with chicory control 77.1 +_ 3.0, with NIA/STZ 159.2+_7.6, with chicory –NIA/STZ 110.4 +_8.5 with STZ 416.5+_33.0 and with chicory-STZ 361+_86.1. similarly chicory helped to control other factors such as ALT, AST, TG, TC and total protein values. The result of this study that chicory helped to control early and late stage diabites. 17.   


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