1 chloroform and ether extracts of L. aspera

1        Leucas aspera and its Pharmacological properties-

Leucas aspera is present throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Traditional uses of Leucas aspera are it is an antipyretic and insecticide. Flowers are used as stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. Leaves are used for chronic rheumatism, psoriasis, and chronic skin eruptions.

                   Leucas aspera hot water extract is used to treat inflammation,dyspepsis and Jaundice. The plant is used for asthma headache and bronchitis. Leucas aspera flowers are used for the treatment of cough and colds when roasted in ghee and are given orally. Porridge of leaves is used nasally as an antivenin. Leucas aspera leaf paste when mixed with turmeric is used in healing wounds and boils.

  Antimicrobial activity:

Thakur DK et al., (1987) studied in vitro study of chloroform and ether extracts of L. aspera revealed its antifungal activity against Trichophyton and Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 5mg/mL. Leucas aspera had both fungistatic and fungicidal actions.

R. Valsaraj et al., (1997)   investigated  antimicrobial activity of 78 traditional medicinal plants of India  by agar dilution method at different concentration of 80% ethanol  extracts against four bacteria. Leucas aspera leaf showed activity against two bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showing inhibition at 12.5 mg/ml.

 

R P Samy and S Ignacimuthu (2000)  studied antibacterial activity for 30 Indian folklore medicinal plants by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.Leucas aspera leaves showed activity against one or more bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella aerogenes. Standard drug used was Chloramphenicol (30 mg/disc), streptomycin (30 mg/disc).

 

D Srinivasa et al., (2001) studied Antimicrobial activity on 56 plants in which Leucas aspera exhibited the broadest spectra of activity against atleast nine organism. (Chromobacterium; Escherichia coli, Enterobacter faecalis, Aspergillus flavus; A. fumigates, A. niger, Candida Albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia

R.Udayakumar and V.Hazeena begum (2002) Studied antimicrobial activities of 80% ethanol extract of of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. Inhibitory zones were observed.

K. Mangathayaru et al., (2005) studied the antibacterial activity of leucas aspera flowers. The methanol extract of leucas aspera flowers, its fractions, the alkaloid residue and expressed flower juice showed good antibacterial activity for methanol extract and ethanol fraction with maximal activity for alkaloid residue

S J Gerige et al., (2007) investigated inhibitory activity of volatile oil of Leucas aspera . 20 ml of Leucas aspera volatile oil was highly sensitive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Haemophilus influenza and Candida albicans. Chemical composition of volatile oil of Leucas aspera was identified by GC-MS analysis. Carvone, carvacrol, menthol, phellandral, farnesene, caryophyllene and two new compounds to the pant namely Alloaromadendrene and Caryophyllene was identified.

 

Ilango et al., (2008) investigated the antibacterial activity of Leucas aspera spreng. Leucas aspera plant was defatted with hexane and discarded. Marc obtained was extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and was evaporated under vacuum. The ethyl acetate and methanol extract displayed a compelling antibacterial activity against the screened microorganism.

 

R. Preethi  et al., (2010) investigated  antimicrobial acitivity of locally available plants viz., Ficus religiosa, Leucas aspera, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Psidium guajavai were screened. Methanol extraction of Leucas aspera showed activity in Pseudomonas spp and B. subtilis with 22-23mm.Aqueous and ethanol extract displayed low activities.

 

Ai lan chew et al., (2012) examined different parts of leucas aspera (root,flower,stem and leaves) for antimicrobial activity. The plant parts were extracted with methanol. The antimicrobial screening for crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed eminent antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms

 

Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful Islam (2013) studied antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera .The extract showed remarkable inhibitory activity against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi , Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae was observed

 

 

Mohammad Sayed Alam et al., (2014) studied in vitro bactericidal activity against 10 pathogenic bacteria by Disc diffusion method. The dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of the leucas aspera depicted strong antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate fraction displayed significant antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria only.

 

Asha Gangadharan et al., (2014) investigated antibacterial activity of of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three indigenous medicinal plants on different microorganisms. Leucas aspera, Biophytum and Aloevera had significant activity against Klebsiella, S.aureus and Bacillus.

 

 

Phytochemical analysis:

 

K. Mangathayaru et al., (2005) studied phytochemical screening. In phytochemical screening of the extracts Petroleum ether extract tested positive for lipids, n-BuOH for triterpenes, EtOAc for flavonoids and  MeOH for sugars and alkaloids.

 

M.S. Rahman et al., (2007) investigated the phytochemical analysis and showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugars, steroids and gums.

 

Moni Rani Saha et al., (2008) studied phytochemical analysis of  methanolic extracts of Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia.The nalaysis showed the presence of alkaloids,flavonoids,tannins,gums,saponins andsteroids.

 

Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful islam (2013) investigated the phytochemical analysis of Leucas aspera . The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phlobatannins, saponins and glycosides.

 

N. K. Udaya Prakash et al., (2013) studied phytochemical analysis on Hundred plants. Phloba tannins, saponins terpenoids and steroids were present in Leucas aspera leaves.

 

Asha Gangadharan et al., (2014)  investigated the Phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of Leucas aspera.The analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, steroids & terpenoids, in addition to carbohydrate, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and oils in aqueous extract.

 

Kongari Saritha et al., (2015) studied phytochemical screening of Leucas aspera ethanolic extract. The analysis revealed presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins and phenolics.

 

 

Antioxidant activity

 

M.S. Rahman et al., (2007) studied antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera root by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay . The extract showed a significant free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of  8 ?g/ml

 

 

 

Moni Rani Saha et al., (2008) investigated antioxidant activity of four plants; Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia by Nitric oxide scavenging assay. The ethanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera showed the highest NO scavenging effect with

80.50% at 320 µg/ml with IC50 value of 94.15 µg/ml

 

Gopal et al., (2010) investigated the Antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera leaves. Methanol extract of Leucas aspera leaves exhibited strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ) and superoxide radical scavenging activities.

 

 

Ai lan chew et al., (2012) investigated Antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera plant parts (root ,flower, leaf and stem).The extracts displayed moderate to potent antioxidant activity.The root extract depicted the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552?g/mL and is a potential source of antioxidant.

 

Talha Bin Emran et al., (2012) investigated the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Leucas aspera. Antioxdant activity was assayed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. The extract displayed compelling DPPH free radical scavenging effect. IC50 value of ascorbic acid and ethanolic extract was found to be 1.25 µg/ml and 99.58 µg/ml, respectively.

 

 

Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful islam (2013) investigated the antioxidant activity of whole Leucas aspera alcoholic extract.The radical scavenging activity of the extract showed profound activity with IC50 value of (99.58±1.22) ?g/mL which was significant (P<0.01) in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50 value of (1.25±0.95) ?g/mL.     Sandeep Banu et al., (2012) investigated antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera in  d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Leucas aspera extract significantly exalted antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and decreased lipid peroxidation levels in liver.   Haripyaree et al., (2010) studied antioxidant activity of Crude methanol extracts of five medicinal plant species-Mimosa pudica, Vitex trifolia, Centella asiatica, Leucas aspera, and Plantago using sulfur free radical reactivity with curcumin as reference indicator. The relative curcumin protection by different plant extracts against  Sulfur free radicals  showed that Leucas aspera gave highest degree of radio protection.        Antiinflammatory activity    K. Srinivas et al., (2000) studied study the anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum, and Leucas aspera on carrageenan induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats H. indicum and L. aspera displayed anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and subacute Inflammation.   K.G.Kripa et al., (2011) investigated anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera in adjuvant arthritis. Ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera exhibited significant anti-inflammatory (p < 0.001). A. R Saundane et al., (2000) investigated anti-inflammatory activity of four different crude extracts petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water of Leucas aspera Spreng  orally in albino rats and mice, respectively at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. Ethanol and distilled water extracts displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity. M Kannappa Reddy et al., (1986) studied anti-inflammatory activity and mast cell degranulation of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Leucas aspera. Both the extracts observed significant antiinflammatory activity for acute and chronic inflammation.The mast cell degranulation was adequately prevented by Leucas aspera. Asha Gangadharan  et al., (2014) evaluated anti-inflammatory activity by Hyaluronidase activity. Leucas aspera showed potent antihyaluronidase activity. Anticancer activity Mohammad Sayed Alam et al. (2014) investigated in vivo cytotoxicity effect against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii). The dichloromethane fraction of the methanol extract of the leaves of Leucas aspera had strong cytotoxic effects. M.S. Rahman  et al., (2007) investigated cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay.The ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera root The extract showed significant lethality to brine shrimp with an LC50 value.   Md Saiful islam and Md Atiar Rahman (2013) investigated cytotoxic effects of whole Leucas aspera alcoholic extract.The cytotoxic effect was evaluated by Brine shrimp lethality assay. The extract displayed the LC50 value as (181.68±2.15) ?g/mL which was statistically significant (P<0.01).   Anjusha Mohan et al., (2016) evaluated anticancer activity of Leucas aspera nanoparticles compared with methanolic crude extract in PC3 prostate cancer cells and normal cells. Nanoparticles were prepared from plant methanolic extracts. In vitro hemolysis assay, cellular uptake studies, cell aggregation studies, and cell migration assay concluded the anticancerous activity of L. aspera in prostate cancer.   Antidiabetic activity   Gupta N et al., 2011 investigated antidiabetic activity of Ethanol and Petroleum ether extracts of Leucas aspera in alloxan induced as well as streptazotocin induced hyperglycemic rat. The different extracts of the plant Leucas aspera were tested for oral hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic activity, by glucose oral tolerance test, alloxan induced and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively. The extracts of Leucas aspera have shown significant ( P<0.001) increase in glucose tolerance, the maximum effect was given by ethanolic extract.       Abdul Mannan et al., (2010) investigated antihyperglycemic activity of  leaf and stem methanol extracts of Leucas aspera(Wild) .) Link and Lannea Coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Bark Extract in Mice.The results depicted a strong antidaibetic activity for leaves and stems of Leucas aspera and the bark of Lannea coromandelica   Flacourtia jangomas and its Pharmacological properties   Flacourtia jangomas belongs to family flacourtiaceae. It has  been utilized as a conventional medication for the treatment of  distinctive infections in India 1, Malay Peninsula 2, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The plant isn't used for its therapeutic properties yet additionally developed for its consumable products of the soil. Flacourtia jangomas has been utilized in the treatment of asthma 5, bleeding gum, tooth throb, diabetes 6 and the leaves after decoction are utilized as a part of the treatment of dysentry and diarrhea. Flacourtia jangomas contains distinctive components gatherings counting tannins, sugar, fats (palmitic, hexadecadienolic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids), minerals,ascorbic acids, tartaric acids, proteins, amino acids and phenolic mixes.   Antibacterial activity: Sarker et al., (2011) investigated antibacterial activity of chloroform extract of flacourtia jangomas and Flacourtia jangomas sepiaria by Disc diffusion method. Flacourtia jangomas chloroform extract indicated good activity against all the test bacteria.E.coli showed maximum susceptibility with zone of inhibition 14 ± 0.59 mm.Flaourtia jangomas displayed better activity than Flacourtia sepiaria. Shumaia Parvin et al., (2011) studied antibacterial activity of Flacourtia jangomas against Gram positive and Gram negative Bacteria by Disc diffusion method .The extract depicted good activity against Shigella shiga and Bacillus megaterium and moderate activity against Bacillus cerus and poor activity against E. coli. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extract evaluated was 31.25 mg/ml and 125 mg/ml for Bacillus megaterium and E. coli respectively.   Sumit Das et al., (2017) investigated antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract, ethyl acetate extract and N-butanol extract of Flacourtia jangomas fruit against S. aureus and Escherichia coli by disc diffusion method. n-butanol extracts extricates significant antimicrobial activity against all the strains when contrasted with the standard drug Cloramphenicol. Antioxidant activity Chinmoy Talukdar et al., (2012) investigated antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Flacourtia jangomas leaves. The extract displayed a significant inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 11 µg/mL whereas the IC50 value for the standard ascorbic acid was 5 µg/mL. The extract also depicted strong Ferric reducing power compared with standard ascorbic acid. Sumit Das et al., (2017) investigated antioxidant activity of Flacourtia jangoams fruit by reducing power method and Thiobarbituric assay (TBA).The extracts showed high amount of antioxidant activity. Dubey Neeharika et al., (2013) investigated antioxidant activity of Flacourtia jangoams unripe fruits by DPPH method. The extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity from  44.1% to 98.2% and total antioxidant activity from 0.043% to 0.144%.   Aklima J et al., (2014) investigated antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of five Bangladeshi fruits that are Averrhoa bilimbi (Bilimbi), Artocarpus lacucha (Monkey jack), Cucumis melo (Mask melon), Phoenix sylvestris (Wild date palm) and Flacourita jangomas (Indian plum) by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. ). DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the IC50 values for Flacourtia jangomas was 1.144 mg/ml.   Sangeetha Annie George et al., (2017) investigated antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of six plants- Couroupita guianensis, Flacourtia jangomas, Lucuma nervosa, Euphorbia milii, Acalypha hispida, and Hydnocarpus pentandra. By 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities. Flacourtia  jangomas flower extract showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 11.16±0.54 µg/ml and 12.34±0.37 µg/ml for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. . Phytochemical analysis Jamal Ahmed et al., (1984) isolated a novel limnoid Jangomolide together with limonin, from Flacourtia jangomas.   S.Kermasha et al., (1987) displayed the presence of proteins, vitamin C, fructose, ?, ? glucose,sucrose, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium in view of dry weight of Flacourtia jangomas.   Sumit Das et al., (2017) investigated Phytochemical screening  for n-butanol,Dichloromethane, and methanol extract of Flacourtia jangomas for the presence of phytochemical constituent like alkaloid, glycoside, tannin, amino acid, steroid, protein, flavonoid etc. Glycoside,Flavonoid and steroid was present in methanolic extract. Ajay Kumar Singh and Jyoti Singh  (2010) studied phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Flacourtia jangomas leaves and stem that revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. Chinmoy Talukder  et al., (2012) investigated total phenol content of the ethanol extract of leaves of Flacourtia jangomas.Total phenolic content  was 601.03 mg GAE/100 g of dried plant  material evaluated by Folin Ciocalteu's reagent. Anticancer activity Sarker et al., (2011) investigated anticancer activity of chloroform extract of Flacourtia jangomas. Flacourtia jangomas showed cytotoxic effect by brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 values of 12.58 µg/ml.

Shumaia Parvin et al, (2011) evaluated cytototoxic properties of Flacourtia jangomas by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Flacourtia jangomas showed considerable cytotoxic properties. Vincristine sulfate was used as a standard reference.

Sangeetha Annie George et al., (2017)  investigated cytotoxic activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of six plants- Couroupita guianensis, Flacourtia jangomas, Lucuma nervosa, Euphorbia milii, Acalypha hispida, and Hydnocarpus pentandra  by MTT assay. The Flacourtia jangomas flower extract displayed favorable cytotoxic activity against the two cancer cell lines, Calu6 and SCC9 with IC50 values of 43.57±0.04 ?g/ml and 53.42±0.15 ?g/ml, respectively.

 

Anti-diabetic activity

Ajay Kumar singh et al., (2010) investigated antidiabetic of Flacourtia jangomas leaf and stem (1:1) methanolic extract (MEFJ) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats . Oral administration of Methanolic extract of Flacourtia jangomas for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic activity. N Surjit Singh et al., (2010) investigated antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Flacourtia jangomas (lour) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The acute and subacute anti hyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.p.o) of plant extracts were studied. They had evaluated the blood glucose level, body weight and serum lipid profiles of normal and diabetic rats along with liver and muscle glycogen level in normal and diabetic rats.