1 Leucas aspera and its Pharmacological properties-
Leucas aspera is present throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Traditional uses of Leucas aspera are it is an antipyretic and insecticide. Flowers are used as stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. Leaves are used for chronic rheumatism, psoriasis, and chronic skin eruptions.
Leucas aspera hot water extract is used to treat inflammation,dyspepsis and Jaundice. The plant is used for asthma headache and bronchitis. Leucas aspera flowers are used for the treatment of cough and colds when roasted in ghee and are given orally. Porridge of leaves is used nasally as an antivenin. Leucas aspera leaf paste when mixed with turmeric is used in healing wounds and boils.
Thakur DK et al., (1987) studied in vitro study of chloroform and ether extracts of L. aspera revealed its antifungal activity against Trichophyton and Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 5mg/mL. Leucas aspera had both fungistatic and fungicidal actions.
R. Valsaraj et al., (1997) investigated antimicrobial activity of 78 traditional medicinal plants of India by agar dilution method at different concentration of 80% ethanol extracts against four bacteria. Leucas aspera leaf showed activity against two bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showing inhibition at 12.5 mg/ml.
R P Samy and S Ignacimuthu (2000) studied antibacterial activity for 30 Indian folklore medicinal plants by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.Leucas aspera leaves showed activity against one or more bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella aerogenes. Standard drug used was Chloramphenicol (30 mg/disc), streptomycin (30 mg/disc).
D Srinivasa et al., (2001) studied Antimicrobial activity on 56 plants in which Leucas aspera exhibited the broadest spectra of activity against atleast nine organism. (Chromobacterium; Escherichia coli, Enterobacter faecalis, Aspergillus flavus; A. fumigates, A. niger, Candida Albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia
R.Udayakumar and V.Hazeena begum (2002) Studied antimicrobial activities of 80% ethanol extract of of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. Inhibitory zones were observed.
K. Mangathayaru et al., (2005) studied the antibacterial activity of leucas aspera flowers. The methanol extract of leucas aspera flowers, its fractions, the alkaloid residue and expressed flower juice showed good antibacterial activity for methanol extract and ethanol fraction with maximal activity for alkaloid residue
S J Gerige et al., (2007) investigated inhibitory activity of volatile oil of Leucas aspera . 20 ml of Leucas aspera volatile oil was highly sensitive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Haemophilus influenza and Candida albicans. Chemical composition of volatile oil of Leucas aspera was identified by GC-MS analysis. Carvone, carvacrol, menthol, phellandral, farnesene, caryophyllene and two new compounds to the pant namely Alloaromadendrene and Caryophyllene was identified.
Ilango et al., (2008) investigated the antibacterial activity of Leucas aspera spreng. Leucas aspera plant was defatted with hexane and discarded. Marc obtained was extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and was evaporated under vacuum. The ethyl acetate and methanol extract displayed a compelling antibacterial activity against the screened microorganism.
R. Preethi et al., (2010) investigated antimicrobial acitivity of locally available plants viz., Ficus religiosa, Leucas aspera, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Psidium guajavai were screened. Methanol extraction of Leucas aspera showed activity in Pseudomonas spp and B. subtilis with 22-23mm.Aqueous and ethanol extract displayed low activities.
Ai lan chew et al., (2012) examined different parts of leucas aspera (root,flower,stem and leaves) for antimicrobial activity. The plant parts were extracted with methanol. The antimicrobial screening for crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed eminent antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms
Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful Islam (2013) studied antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera .The extract showed remarkable inhibitory activity against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi , Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae was observed
Mohammad Sayed Alam et al., (2014) studied in vitro bactericidal activity against 10 pathogenic bacteria by Disc diffusion method. The dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of the leucas aspera depicted strong antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate fraction displayed significant antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria only.
Asha Gangadharan et al., (2014) investigated antibacterial activity of of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three indigenous medicinal plants on different microorganisms. Leucas aspera, Biophytum and Aloevera had significant activity against Klebsiella, S.aureus and Bacillus.
K. Mangathayaru et al., (2005) studied phytochemical screening. In phytochemical screening of the extracts Petroleum ether extract tested positive for lipids, n-BuOH for triterpenes, EtOAc for flavonoids and MeOH for sugars and alkaloids.
M.S. Rahman et al., (2007) investigated the phytochemical analysis and showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugars, steroids and gums.
Moni Rani Saha et al., (2008) studied phytochemical analysis of methanolic extracts of Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia.The nalaysis showed the presence of alkaloids,flavonoids,tannins,gums,saponins andsteroids.
Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful islam (2013) investigated the phytochemical analysis of Leucas aspera . The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phlobatannins, saponins and glycosides.
N. K. Udaya Prakash et al., (2013) studied phytochemical analysis on Hundred plants. Phloba tannins, saponins terpenoids and steroids were present in Leucas aspera leaves.
Asha Gangadharan et al., (2014) investigated the Phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of Leucas aspera.The analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, steroids & terpenoids, in addition to carbohydrate, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and oils in aqueous extract.
Kongari Saritha et al., (2015) studied phytochemical screening of Leucas aspera ethanolic extract. The analysis revealed presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins and phenolics.
M.S. Rahman et al., (2007) studied antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera root by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay . The extract showed a significant free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 8 ?g/ml
Moni Rani Saha et al., (2008) investigated antioxidant activity of four plants; Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia by Nitric oxide scavenging assay. The ethanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera showed the highest NO scavenging effect with
80.50% at 320 µg/ml with IC50 value of 94.15 µg/ml
Gopal et al., (2010) investigated the Antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera leaves. Methanol extract of Leucas aspera leaves exhibited strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ) and superoxide radical scavenging activities.
Ai lan chew et al., (2012) investigated Antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera plant parts (root ,flower, leaf and stem).The extracts displayed moderate to potent antioxidant activity.The root extract depicted the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552?g/mL and is a potential source of antioxidant.
Talha Bin Emran et al., (2012) investigated the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Leucas aspera. Antioxdant activity was assayed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. The extract displayed compelling DPPH free radical scavenging effect. IC50 value of ascorbic acid and ethanolic extract was found to be 1.25 µg/ml and 99.58 µg/ml, respectively.
Md. Atiar Rahman and Saiful islam (2013) investigated the antioxidant activity of whole Leucas aspera alcoholic extract.The radical scavenging activity of the extract showed profound activity with IC50 value of (99.58±1.22) ?g/mL which was significant (P50 values of 12.58 µg/ml.
Shumaia Parvin et al, (2011) evaluated cytototoxic properties of Flacourtia jangomas by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Flacourtia jangomas showed considerable cytotoxic properties. Vincristine sulfate was used as a standard reference.
Sangeetha Annie George et al., (2017) investigated cytotoxic activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of six plants- Couroupita guianensis, Flacourtia jangomas, Lucuma nervosa, Euphorbia milii, Acalypha hispida, and Hydnocarpus pentandra by MTT assay. The Flacourtia jangomas flower extract displayed favorable cytotoxic activity against the two cancer cell lines, Calu6 and SCC9 with IC50 values of 43.57±0.04 ?g/ml and 53.42±0.15 ?g/ml, respectively.
Ajay Kumar singh et al., (2010) investigated antidiabetic of Flacourtia jangomas leaf and stem (1:1) methanolic extract (MEFJ) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats . Oral administration of Methanolic extract of Flacourtia jangomas for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P