1. Hobbes thought of human nature as selfish, with desire for war, and greedy.2. Locke said that while men may be sacrificing some of their freedom, they now are protected by a ruler.
Also, while this ruler may govern these men, they do not have absolute power over them.3. Montesquieu was influenced by Locke’s views of equality between men and women, religious accommodation, and, in preference to Latin, the transition to modern languages. While Montesquieu’s nature seemed to possess the same morals, I also believe that he was influenced by Locke to preserve the fundamental right of exercising free will. Jefferson was also an advocate for this “unalienable right” that Locke, and now Montesquieu, believed was critical to preserve. He followed in the path that Locke created and supported the formation of a social contract between the governor, and the governed.4. The Encyclopédie was created to enlighten fellow men and women, and to help create social reform in society, with the largest volume of knowledge fashioned in the West.
Diderot want to begin ridding societies ignorance and to spread information. This was in concern to how literacy was growing and members of society becoming more interested in facts about life.5. Adam Smith believed that humans had a natural tendency to do labor, trade, and barter to become prosperous.
He goes further to state that humans have a natural financial order. This order guides humans to progress economically in their life, and drive the economy.6.
Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Women aim was to attack the stereotype created by misogynistic men, and create a revolution for the education, rights, and independence of women. She deplored the fact that women had been embracing roles to please men.7. Condorcet argued that the main causes of differences between human beings were inequalities in education, finances, and the status of a man whose survival is dependent on how long he could work, and the man whose subsistence is inherited. Condorcet believed this could be remedied by the progression of equality.
8. Joseph Addison fashioned two periodicals, called Tatler, and Spector. Daniel Defoe wrote an autobiography called Robinson Crusoe.
Alexander Pope created new translations of Homer’s poems, Iliad and Odyssey, and he also wrote a famous poem, called Essay on Man.