1. ARP – AddressResolution Protocol: The purpose of the ARP is to map an IP addressto a computer that is connected to a local network otherwise known as a LAN.Every Computer has a physical hardware address called the Mac address, when themapping is done it then converts the IP address to its corresponding physicalnetwork address. This protocol is used whenever any device attempts to communicatewith another device on a local network like an Ethernet network for an example.
Whenever a device sends a message all the other devices on the local networksegment will see the message, however the only device that will respond is theone that has its IP address converted into the physical MAC address. In the OSImodel the ARP operates inside of the Data-Link layer also known as layer 2. Inthe TCP/IP model the ARP rest in the Network access layer also known as thelink layer.
a) https://techterms.com/definition/arpb) http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Address-Resolution-Protocol-ARPc) http://study-ccna.com/arp/ 2. IPv6 – InternetProtocol version 6: Also called “IPng: IP Next Generation)” it isthe Internet’s next-generation protocol. IPv6 was developed by the InternetEngineering Task Force which is an organization whose purpose is to developinternet technologies. The purpose of this protocol is increases the number ofIP address available.
Before IPv6 the standard system was the IPv4 which assignseach computer a 32-bit numeric address. The reason for the switch to IPv6 isbecause IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses which increase the amount of IP address bya significant amount. To put a number on it the IPv4 allows the use of 4,294,967,296addresses while the IPv6 can make use of over340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses. In the OSImodel the IPv6 operates inside of the Network Layer also known as Layer 3. Inthe TCP/IP model the IPv6 rest in the Internet Layer.
a) https://techterms.com/definition/ipv6b) https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202236c) https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/ipv6_ipv4_difference.html 3.
IPSec – Internetprotocol security: The IPsec is a framework of protocols that provide securityfor internet protocol. The IPsec has the option of two security services. Theseservices are the Authentication Header and the Encapsulating Security Payload.The Authentication Header authenticates the sender and ensures the integrityand data origin of data packets. The Encapsulating Security Payload provides authenticationfor the sender while encrypting any piece of data that is being sent. The IPSecalso has two modes that it makes use of. These modes are the Transport Mode andthe Tunnel Mode.
The Transport mode ensures a secure channel of communicationby encapsulatingthe packet. The Tunnel mode takes the packet to forma secure connection betweentwo devices. In the OSI model the IPSecoperates inside of the Network Layer also known as Layer 3. In the TCP/IPmodel the IPv6 rest in the Internet Layer. In the TCP/IP model the IPv6 rest inthe Internet Layer.