1.   University
space law and norms (Waqar)

University is an institution of higher
education that awards an academic degree in a variety of disciplines and
faculties. As an institution, it must have a building which came under the
category of educational buildings and some specification are adopted while
designing and constructing a building for the university. Moreover, each
university has its own laws and norms to run the university in an efficient
way.

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The building is generally designed according to
the space laws and regulations of the universities that also include the proper
planning and management of facilities of the institution. The space management
is a part of facility management and it is the responsibility of the facility
manager of the university to plan and manage the university spaces efficiently
and economically.

The university space laws and regulation are
generally dependent upon the national building codes of the country.
Considering the space laws and guidelines for university buildings in Finland
is mainly dependent upon the Finnish national building codes and the
international building codes.

1.1.             
Finish law and norms

Finland
is the country which is more inclined toward the west in construction industry
same is the case for the space laws and guidelines. Finnish building codes have
the guidelines for space planning and management for the various building but
unfortunately, the planning and management of the University building is not up
to the level of standardization because they mainly follow the west for the
space planning and management of the educational buildings. Below the
facilities are described according to Finnish Building Bodes (FBC) and also the
International Building Codes (IBC) regarding their use and the area required
per person in order to efficiently manage the space of the facility.

1.1.1. Administrative
facilities (description and m2
per person)

Administration
one of the important branch of university employees which is responsible for
running the various function of the university. But, the most important
function of administration is the maintenance and supervision of the
institution and its proper functioning. The administration section of a
university is separate from the faculty or academics. Each university has, its
own kind of administration structure but some of the common structures which
are employed usually and generally are that administration are chaired by head
or director.

Following
are some of the key responsibilities of the administration offices in
universities:

•    Admissions

•    Supervision of academic affairs such as
hiring, promotion, tenure, and evaluation

•    Maintenance of official records

•    Maintenance and audit of financial flows
and records

•    Maintenance, cleaning, and construction of
campus buildings and landscapes.

•    Maintenance of the campus grounds and
gymnasiums.

•    Safety and security of people and property
on the campus.

•    Maintenance and construction

•    Information technology.

•    Research administration

•    Public affairs

•    Student services, career counseling, and
library staff.

Owing
to a lot more responsibilities of administrative office and above-mentioned
ones this branch is further subdivided into small offices in order to manage
all these responsibilities efficiently and effectively.

1.1.1.1.    Offices
  

The
mentioned responsibilities of the administration are beyond the reach of
limited administration staff. Owing to the responsibilities the administration
of the university is further divided into various departments according to
their functions. Some of the major departments of the administration are
Engineering/facility management, finance, human resource and many more
departments.

The
main reasons for dividing the administration into various departments are the
proper and efficient functioning of each department according to the laws and
regulation of the university.

All
these departments’ employees required offices for proper working conditions and
environment and it is the responsibilities of the facility manager or the
engineering department to provide the proper working spaces and healthy indoor
environmental conditions.

According
to International building codes (IBC), the standard minimum area required for
efficient and proper working the administration offices are 10-30 m^2  per person.

According
to the Finnish national building codes (FNBC), the area required for offices
that work as administration in the university depends upon the efficiency of
the area. Like for normal space efficiency the area of the offices are
generally required to be 12m^2 per person and for the high space efficiency the
minimum area required for offices in the university is 8m^2 per person.

1.1.1.2.   
Cafeteria   

The eating areas inside the premises of the
university building that usually have the seating arrangement. It is a kind of
restaurant on the premises where it is self-service and the customers select
their food from a variety of dishes displayed on the open counter. The
cafeteria is designed in such a way to facilitate the smooth flow of customers
according to the need of the institution/university to serve the lots of people
efficiently and economically.

 

Generally, the numbers of service personnel
are few compared to other commercial eating places. Owing to its service
structure the cafeteria are generally designed according to the university
standards and requirements.

 

The designing of the cafeteria is based upon
the area required per person and according to Finnish building codes; the
minimum area required per person for cafeteria is 1-1.5m2/person. According to
International building codes, the minimum area for a cafeteria in the premises
of the university is 1-2m2/person.

1.1.1.3.    Gym   

It is also called fitness center or sports
club and it is also situated inside the premises of the University for All Kind
of physical and sports activities. Depends upon the area of the university some
of the sports activities are carried out outdoor and some indoor. But owing to
the limited area of the new campus the physical and sports activities must be
carried out indoor. Proper precautions are generally carried out for the design
of the indoor sport club or fitness center in the university.

 

For more efficient sport center the minimum
area required according to international building codes is 1.5m2/person and
according to Finnish building codes the minimum area required for the sports
center in the university building is   ?

1.1.2. Educational
facilities (description
and m2 per person)

1.1.2.1.               
Classroom   

These are instructional rooms inside the
premises of the university that are most suitable for lectures, discussion and
all kind of instructional demonstrations. These are well equipped with all kind
of tools that are generally required for instruction and also the seating
facilities with desks for all the students. The classrooms are generally
designed according to the requirement of the university that is based on the
number of student in the class.

 

But, generally the classrooms are designed
for a standard number of students and that is mostly related to the building
codes of the country. According to the Finnish building codes, the minimum area
required for the efficient and economical classrooms are 1-2m2 per person.

According to International building codes,
the minimum area required for the efficient design of classrooms in the
educational or university buildings are 2m2 per person.

1.1.2.2.    Library
  

It is one of the important facilities inside
the university premises that is used for the collection, storage and use of
books and other reading or reference materials. The dimension of the facility
depends upon the number of users it is either single-story or multi-story
building. This facility is generally further divided into various parts
according to its function and usage, but the most important and key parts of
the library building or facility are below mentioned according to its function.

?   
Reception area

?   
Stack section

?   
Storage and book repair section

?   
Computer sections

?   
Group study sections

?   
Library readers’ area

The area required for the efficient and
effective library facility in the university building there are some rules and
guidelines for designing the above-mentioned parts of the library.

According to international building codes
the minimum area required for the designing of the most professional library is
2.5-10m2 per person and according to Finnish building codes; the minimum area
required for the well-organized library in university is 6m2 per person.

1.1.2.3.    Laboratory
    

These are more specific
rooms for scheduled classes but, owing to the requirements of special purpose
equipment’s and instruments for practical work, experiments and involvement of
students in the class more practically for future use in the field, these
classrooms are different from the classrooms that are generally used for
theoretical lecturing’s.

Laboratory depends upon the
nature of studies but generally, laboratories are used by the students from the
science faculties. Science faculties are divided into various subparts
according to the nature of studies, but, the area of the laboratory depends
upon the number of students expected to be served and the associated area
required for the instruments and equipment.

 

According to international
standards, the minimum area required for science laboratories in university or
any other educational institutions is 4-5m2 per person in order to use the area
in more efficient and proficient way.

According to Finnish
building code, the minimum area required for a laboratory is 5m2 per person in
order to efficiently use the area of the premises.

1.1.2.4.    Auditorium

It is an area for large
meetings, presentation and other kinds of performance. These types of space
area are of various types like exhibition halls, assembly halls, cinemas, and
theaters. But, the auditorium is different from the space types specified
above, owing to the features of the auditorium buildings. Some of the basic
features that differentiate the auditorium building from other similar kinds of
large space areas are that auditorium does not have the features of sound
systems, audiovisual systems and also the projection screens.

The area or the space of
the auditorium is designed in such a way to accommodate the maximum number of
audiences. Generally, the auditoriums in university premises are single-story,
sloped floor with seats and a raised stage. Also, the auditorium is designed
and constructed in such a manner that is accessible to disable peoples.

According to international
building codes, the minimum area required per person to design the spaces like
auditorium is 0.6m2/person.

1.1.3. Sanitary
space facilities (description
and m2 per person)

1.1.3.1.    Wc

According
to international building and plumbing codes, the number of minimum seats and
urinals are 1 per 50 persons in educational facilities for male and numbers of
minimum seats for females are also 1 per 50 persons. Also, Finland has its own
building codes and according to Finnish building codes the facilities of WC in
a facility will be provided according to its requirements and the standards for
a facility like restaurants and educational buildings are exactly the same as
the regulation of international building codes.

According
to Finnish building code, the WC for the handicapped and people with less
mobility should provide with barrier-free access to the facility easily.

1.1.3.2.    Shower

The
showers in the university are not very much required but, the area required to
design and construct the shower depends upon the number of full-time occupants
of the building.

1.1.4.    
HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning)

The University building should be designed
and constructed in such a way that the indoor climate of the building should be
healthy, safe and good for work and study conditions. For a healthy and safe
indoor climate the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system of the
building is designed according to the number of full-time occupants.

For a healthy indoor environment some of the
factors should be kept in mind while designing and construction the university
buildings:

?    Heating:

In order to get a healthy and work friendly
environment, it is necessary to design and construct a building in such a
manner that the room temperature in the occupied zone can be maintained at the
time of full-time occupancy and to avoid the extra usage of energy.

According to indoor climate and ventilation
guidelines of National building code of Finland the design room temperatures
during the heating season is 21°C and during the summer season, the room
temperature is 23°C.

?    Ventilation:

The building should be designed and
constructed is a way that the indoor climate of the building, like air, is free
from extra gases, microbes and other unhealthy particles and odors that affect
the working or study environment of the building. According to guidelines, the
designed quantities of various gases and particles in the air should be:

Carbon dioxide    2,160 mg/m3

Ammonia         20µg/m3

Humidity          7 g H2O/kg of dry air

According to national building codes of
Finland, the minimum flow of air or the ventilation factor per person is 6-8
(dm3/s) per person for educational or university buildings. Following the
factor, the healthy indoor climate can be achieved inside the premises of
university buildings.

1.1.5. Landscape
(description)

Final
table:

SPACES

International
law and norms

Finish
law and norms

Administrative
facilities

 

 

Offices

10-30m2/person

Normal 12m2/per, high 8m2/per

Cafeteria

1.2m2/person

1-1.5m2/person

Gym

1.5m2/person

 

Educational
facilities

 

 

Classroom

2m2/person

1-2m2/person

Library

2.5-10m2/person

6m2/person

Laboratory

5/person (Science)

4-5m2/person

Auditorium

0.6m2/per

 

Sanitary
space facilities

 

 

Wc

1 per 50 persons

1 per 50 persons

shower

1 per 50 person

1 per 50 persons

HVAC

 

6-8(dm3/s) per
person

Landscape

 

 

 

Refrences:

1.    https://www.pdx.edu/ogc/sites/www.pdx.edu.ogc/files/SPACE%20USE%20OBJECTIVES%20AND%20BUILDING%20PLANNING%20STANDARDS.pdf

2.    https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/number-persons-buildings-d_118.html

3.    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_club

4.    https://codes.iccsafe.org/public/document/code/550/9793343

5.    Indoor
Climate and Ventilation of Buildings National building codes of Finland Regulations
and Guidelines 2003

6.    The
Finnish Classification of Indoor Environment and Material Emissions Jorma
Säteri “Finnish Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, FiSIAQ”

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