1.1. General Introduction

term “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics”
(to measure).Biometrics is the automated identification of human identity
through the measurement of repeatable physiological or behavioral
characteristics. (Paul, 2008)In 500BC, there is also evidence that
fingerprints were used as a person’s mark and in 1858, Sir William Herschel,
working for the Civil Service of India, recorded a handprint of each worker to
distinguish employees from others who might claim to be employees when payday
arrived which was the first recorded system.(Mayhew, 2015)The Biometric technology is used
for identification and access control. The basic premise of biometric authentication
is that every person can be accurately identified by his or her physical or
behavioral traits.(Rouse, 2000)There
are different types of biometric technologies like fingerprint, facial
recognition, eye scanning, etc. There are a huge number of applications for
biometric technology as it is used to provide better-than-password security to
online accounts or personal hardware (like phones, tablets or PCs), used to
authenticate financial transactions, especially paymentsas well as it helps law
enforcement agents catch criminals.

Figure 1.biometric
sensors (Agarwal , 2015)


1.2. Current Scenario

is a rapidly evolving field in both commercial and government applications of
large-scale biometric systems. (Jain et al., 2011) Biometric technologies has been used
in law enforcement and high-security facilities for decades, now biometric
is bleeding into consumer markets in the form of fingerprint scanners for
automobiles, laptops and mobile devices as well as for attendance in companies,
offices, etc., facial recognition technology in computer software, and
iris recognition used in ATMs in some corners of the globe.(Clark, 2015) Also, it has been
used in airports more conveniently bypreventing illegal immigration and
restricting terrorists and criminals entering the country as well as in schoolto address truancy, to replace library cards, or to
charge for meals and to make sure no student get lost in field trip.


2.1. Elaboration

is the measurement of people’s unique physical and behavior characteristics.
Other securities (such as cards, password) can be stolen but biometric cannot
be stolen.Biometric system can seem complicated but they all use the same
steps: enrollment, storage and comparison(WILSON, 2006). Firstly, it is necessary for each user
to enroll by providing samples of the biometrics (like fingerprint) which is
used to make template. When user attempts to authenticate the biometrics they
provide is then compared with their storage template. And at last, it assesses
whether the sample is similar enough to the template to be judged to be match.(Rubens, 2012)The features of
biometrics are as follows:

Ø  Biometric systems provide more accurate
identification, lowering your risk of unwanted breaches which are difficult to
duplicate or forge hence helps with security as well as accountability.

Ø  Biometric system is efficient as biometric
identification functions very quickly, typically identifying an employee or
visitor in a matter of seconds so it saves time as well as money also.

Ø  It is more convenient as people do not need
to worry about resetting passwords or changing ID cards or badges.

Ø  It is versatile because biometric systems can
be used for various applications such as entrances and exits, doorways to high
security areas, and more.

Ø  Biometric security systems are flexible and
easily scalable because biometric system will grow along with need of security
for more areas and additional employees.(@dmin, 2017)

Ø  Biometrics
makes it possible, automatically, to know WHO did WHAT, WHERE and WHEN,
replaces hard-to-remember passwords which may be shared or observed,etc.(Sareen, 2014)


2.1.1. Types of Biometric

 Biometrics is
classified into two types: Physiological Biometrics and Behavioral biometrics
which are shown in fig 2.

of Biometrics(Agarwal , 2015)


Some of them are
describe below:



Recognition is process in which two fingerprints are compared to determine identification byanalyzing the ridges and
valleys patterns (arch, loop, and whorl) on the fingertip. Some laptop
computers utilize it for authorizations for purposes like logging in and
entering website password as well as by banks for approval at ATMs.(Robinson, 2011)

Face Recognition

recognition is the biometric method which is based onshape of facial
attributes, such as eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips, chin and the relationships of
these attributes. Even it is the most natural means of biometric; because of
many facial elements these systems have difficulty in matching face images(Shrivastava1,

Iris Recognition

is one of the unique and stable characteristic of every person which cannot be
change throughout the whole life of a human. In this technology, camera technology
is used with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from the
convex cornea, to create images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the
iris. It is use in large sectors of the economy such as transportation,
healthcare, and national identification programs.(Vats et al., 2016)

Signature Recognition

recognition is a biometric method in which the physical activity of signing
like the pressure applied, stroke order and the speed are analyzed and measuredas well as visual images of signatures are compared.
Signature recognition can be operated in two different ways: static and dynamic.(Agarwal , 2015)


Keystroke Dynamics

dynamics is an automated method in which dynamics like speed and pressure, the
total time of typing a particular password, and the time a user takes between
hitting certain keys of individual are examined on a keyboard. This
technology’s algorithms are still being developed to improve robustness and
distinctiveness. This biometric system is more suitable for verification. (Jaiswal et al., 2011)

2.2. Current Scenario in Nepal

 Nepal is a developing country; the use of
biometric is increasing. Currently, in Nepal biometric is used in different
places like colleges, offices, banks, law enforcement, etc. for attendance,
security, etc. According to the interviewer, Mr. Prakash Shrestha, course
leader of Herald College, the biometric used in Herald college is fingerprint
recognition. This fingerprint system is a student made system. College has used
fingerprint scanning device which provide software library by using which
software was made.So the college has used customized developed software. The purpose
of biometric in this college is for attendance of staff in the office in order
to authenticate the staff as well as for the security.(Unsupported source type (Interview) for source


The use of biometric
is increasing day by day because biometric system is more secured than any
other securities it is more accurate as biometric cannot be stolen like that of
signatures, cards, passwords, etc.; it uses body part for identification which
is unique characteristics of every people. The biometric can be implementto
take attendance of students through fingerprint technology. For the attendance
of the students in the college, fingerprint biometric can be used as same
process as that of staff attendance. Every student can login
to the system through finger detection. The fingerprint of the student is compared
withthe one stored in database and if it matches then attendance is marked
for that particular student. Since, for software, we can use RightPunch™software of M2SYSto maintain the highest performance, security and reliability.as
well as can develop our own by using software library named API for a device
and for the hardware we can useM2-EasyScan Pro. (Anon., 2017) In Nepal, biometric
technology can also implement for payment in the supermarkets.While visiting
supermarket if the customer wanted to use biometric payment to complete their
transaction,they just need to scan their fingerprint,enter the code number and
choose debit or credit card that they want to use and then the transaction is


4.1. Summary

is the automated identification of human identity based on bodily parts.
Biometric is of two types: physical biometrics (like fingerprint recognition,
facial recognition, etc.) and behavior biometrics (like signature recognition,
voice recognition, etc.). Due to use of unique bodily parts, biometric is more
secured and convenience. Biometric uses three steps: enrollment, storage and comparison.
Firstly, the biometric sample of the user is enrolled to make a template and
then stored in a system. At last, the sample is compared to identify the user.
Biometric is used for different sectors like offices, colleges, etc. for
attendance, law enforcement, etc. as well as in mobiles, tabs, PCs for security.

4.2. Future Plan

In today’s world, everything moves faster than before. What often seems
far off becomes a reality quicker than anyone could have imagined. We can see
thatchanges in biometrics as it becomes our part in everyday life. Biometrics
will be used in many areas, for example if we have the biometric entry in our
home, there will be no need of any keys. There will not be problem of losing
keysas our body parts become keys itself which is more secure. We will be able
to pay for somethinglike for bank transaction, for government services, etc. by
using biometric authentication through mobile payment and online payment. No
one will need to stand in a long queue while paying for government services
which also saves our time as well.


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