INTRODUCTION 1.1. General IntroductionTheterm “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics”(to measure).Biometrics is the automated identification of human identitythrough the measurement of repeatable physiological or behavioralcharacteristics. (Paul, 2008)In 500BC, there is also evidence thatfingerprints were used as a person’s mark and in 1858, Sir William Herschel,working for the Civil Service of India, recorded a handprint of each worker todistinguish employees from others who might claim to be employees when paydayarrived which was the first recorded system.(Mayhew, 2015)The Biometric technology is usedfor identification and access control. The basic premise of biometric authenticationis that every person can be accurately identified by his or her physical orbehavioral traits.
(Rouse, 2000)Thereare different types of biometric technologies like fingerprint, facialrecognition, eye scanning, etc. There are a huge number of applications forbiometric technology as it is used to provide better-than-password security toonline accounts or personal hardware (like phones, tablets or PCs), used toauthenticate financial transactions, especially paymentsas well as it helps lawenforcement agents catch criminals.Figure 1.biometricsensors (Agarwal , 2015) 1.2. Current ScenarioItis a rapidly evolving field in both commercial and government applications oflarge-scale biometric systems. (Jain et al.
, 2011) Biometric technologies has been usedin law enforcement and high-security facilities for decades, now biometricis bleeding into consumer markets in the form of fingerprint scanners forautomobiles, laptops and mobile devices as well as for attendance in companies,offices, etc., facial recognition technology in computer software, andiris recognition used in ATMs in some corners of the globe.(Clark, 2015) Also, it has beenused in airports more conveniently bypreventing illegal immigration andrestricting terrorists and criminals entering the country as well as in schoolto address truancy, to replace library cards, or tocharge for meals and to make sure no student get lost in field trip.
2. BACKGROUND2.1. ElaborationBiometricsis the measurement of people’s unique physical and behavior characteristics.Other securities (such as cards, password) can be stolen but biometric cannotbe stolen.Biometric system can seem complicated but they all use the samesteps: enrollment, storage and comparison(WILSON, 2006). Firstly, it is necessary for each userto enroll by providing samples of the biometrics (like fingerprint) which isused to make template.
When user attempts to authenticate the biometrics theyprovide is then compared with their storage template. And at last, it assesseswhether the sample is similar enough to the template to be judged to be match.(Rubens, 2012)The features ofbiometrics are as follows:Ø Biometric systems provide more accurateidentification, lowering your risk of unwanted breaches which are difficult toduplicate or forge hence helps with security as well as accountability.Ø Biometric system is efficient as biometricidentification functions very quickly, typically identifying an employee orvisitor in a matter of seconds so it saves time as well as money also.Ø It is more convenient as people do not needto worry about resetting passwords or changing ID cards or badges.Ø It is versatile because biometric systems canbe used for various applications such as entrances and exits, doorways to highsecurity areas, and more.
Ø Biometric security systems are flexible andeasily scalable because biometric system will grow along with need of securityfor more areas and additional employees.(@dmin, 2017)Ø Biometricsmakes it possible, automatically, to know WHO did WHAT, WHERE and WHEN,replaces hard-to-remember passwords which may be shared or observed,etc.(Sareen, 2014) 2.1.
1. Types of Biometric Biometrics isclassified into two types: Physiological Biometrics and Behavioral biometricswhich are shown in fig 2.Figure2.Typesof Biometrics(Agarwal , 2015) Some of them aredescribe below: FingerprintRecognitionFingerprintRecognition is process in which two fingerprints are compared to determine identification byanalyzing the ridges andvalleys patterns (arch, loop, and whorl) on the fingertip. Some laptopcomputers utilize it for authorizations for purposes like logging in andentering website password as well as by banks for approval at ATMs.
(Robinson, 2011)Face RecognitionFacialrecognition is the biometric method which is based onshape of facialattributes, such as eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips, chin and the relationships ofthese attributes. Even it is the most natural means of biometric; because ofmany facial elements these systems have difficulty in matching face images(Shrivastava1, 2013)Iris RecognitionIrisis one of the unique and stable characteristic of every person which cannot bechange throughout the whole life of a human. In this technology, camera technologyis used with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from theconvex cornea, to create images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of theiris. It is use in large sectors of the economy such as transportation,healthcare, and national identification programs.
(Vats et al., 2016)Signature RecognitionSignaturerecognition is a biometric method in which the physical activity of signinglike the pressure applied, stroke order and the speed are analyzed and measuredas well as visual images of signatures are compared.Signature recognition can be operated in two different ways: static and dynamic.
(Agarwal , 2015) Keystroke DynamicsKeystrokedynamics is an automated method in which dynamics like speed and pressure, thetotal time of typing a particular password, and the time a user takes betweenhitting certain keys of individual are examined on a keyboard. Thistechnology’s algorithms are still being developed to improve robustness anddistinctiveness. This biometric system is more suitable for verification. (Jaiswal et al., 2011)2.2. Current Scenario in Nepal Nepal is a developing country; the use ofbiometric is increasing.
Currently, in Nepal biometric is used in differentplaces like colleges, offices, banks, law enforcement, etc. for attendance,security, etc. According to the interviewer, Mr. Prakash Shrestha, courseleader of Herald College, the biometric used in Herald college is fingerprintrecognition.
This fingerprint system is a student made system. College has usedfingerprint scanning device which provide software library by using whichsoftware was made.So the college has used customized developed software. The purposeof biometric in this college is for attendance of staff in the office in orderto authenticate the staff as well as for the security.(Unsupported source type (Interview) for source Shr18.)3.
IMPLEMENTATIONThe use of biometricis increasing day by day because biometric system is more secured than anyother securities it is more accurate as biometric cannot be stolen like that ofsignatures, cards, passwords, etc.; it uses body part for identification whichis unique characteristics of every people. The biometric can be implementtotake attendance of students through fingerprint technology. For the attendanceof the students in the college, fingerprint biometric can be used as sameprocess as that of staff attendance.
Every student can loginto the system through finger detection. The fingerprint of the student is comparedwiththe one stored in database and if it matches then attendance is markedfor that particular student. Since, for software, we can use RightPunch™software of M2SYSto maintain the highest performance, security and reliability.aswell as can develop our own by using software library named API for a deviceand for the hardware we can useM2-EasyScan Pro. (Anon.
, 2017) In Nepal, biometrictechnology can also implement for payment in the supermarkets.While visitingsupermarket if the customer wanted to use biometric payment to complete theirtransaction,they just need to scan their fingerprint,enter the code number andchoose debit or credit card that they want to use and then the transaction iscompleted.4. CONCLUSION4.1. SummaryBiometricis the automated identification of human identity based on bodily parts.
Biometric is of two types: physical biometrics (like fingerprint recognition,facial recognition, etc.) and behavior biometrics (like signature recognition,voice recognition, etc.).
Due to use of unique bodily parts, biometric is moresecured and convenience. Biometric uses three steps: enrollment, storage and comparison.Firstly, the biometric sample of the user is enrolled to make a template andthen stored in a system. At last, the sample is compared to identify the user.Biometric is used for different sectors like offices, colleges, etc.
forattendance, law enforcement, etc. as well as in mobiles, tabs, PCs for security.4.2. Future PlanIn today’s world, everything moves faster than before. What often seemsfar off becomes a reality quicker than anyone could have imagined. We can seethatchanges in biometrics as it becomes our part in everyday life. Biometricswill be used in many areas, for example if we have the biometric entry in ourhome, there will be no need of any keys.
There will not be problem of losingkeysas our body parts become keys itself which is more secure. We will be ableto pay for somethinglike for bank transaction, for government services, etc. byusing biometric authentication through mobile payment and online payment. Noone will need to stand in a long queue while paying for government serviceswhich also saves our time as well.