Polished concrete, discovered about 14
years ago and has taken its path to history as a sustainable and
low-maintenance paving option in almost all market segments. We have all walked
on a polished concrete surface in recent years. It is such a popular and
fast-growing sector that, in many cases, is outperforming consumers and
contractors with new technologies and new methods. This rapid growth has put
the industry in a very volatile state, leaving consumers confused about what is
and what is not polished and what aspects of performance to expect. (Burns, 2015)

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The Concrete Polishing Association of America (CPAA) was formed in
November 2009 to create standards for concrete processing with a glossy finish
and help define these processes so that architects, designers and consumers can
better understand the selection process. CPAA’s leadership consists of manufacturers
and contractors to provide continuity in the creation of these standards and

 The CPAA defined polished concrete as;
“The act of changing a concrete floor surface, with or without additional
exposure, to achieve the desired level of glossy finish”. There are three
basic versions of polished cement according to the CPAA. They are abrasive
polishes bonded to concrete, burnished polished concrete and topically polished
“polishing process” can divided into three sections. Those are grinding,
densifying and polishing. (wine, n.d.)

There are many flooring systems in the
market and big competition also there. So, evaluation and made modification
should need to polished concrete for survive in industry.

2.1 Grinding


considering floor restoration, that not all types of flooring will be similar
to glass. Concrete grinding occurs before the polishing process, making it a
simpler option and one that takes less time when ultra-bright surfaces are not
required. The resulting grinding texture is a gritty abrasive that is halfway
between an opaque appearance and a low-level gloss, a classic appearance of
steps or exterior surfaces.

The rectified cement can also be
sealed with a urethane sealant to achieve a finish similar to cement smoothed
in fewer steps. In fact, a floor sealed with urethane can work better in many
environments than a polished floor.

Since concrete processing is a
series of steps, the level of resistance, durability and brightness improves as
much as you cut and remodels the concrete. This is the reason why the ground
cement is not as bright as its polished counterparts; polishing requires a
significantly higher production. Both, however, offer a professional look, so
the type of concrete we choose depends entirely on our preferences. (O’Shannessy,


Figure 2 – Grinding Steps different exposes of Aggregate (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.)


Light Sand / Cream Finish

Exposure to
light sand is a ground and polished surface, which generally only exposes sand
particles to the concrete floor. This finish is considered a
“creamy-looking” surface and is the most popular choice for polished
floor and architectural floors.

Salt & Pepper Finish

Salt and
pepper exposure is a smooth, polished surface, which usually exposes fine
aggregate spray to the concrete floor. This finish is chosen more frequently to
give the appearance of an aged surface. Depth of rough cut of 1/16 inch

·     Medium Aggregate Finish

exposure to the aggregate generally exposes the largest amount of average
aggregate in the concrete floor with low or no aggregate exposure in random
locations. Approximate depth of the cut of the surface by 1/8 of an inch.

·     Large Aggregate Finish

aggregate exposure is a more “cut” surface, which usually exposes the
largest amount of the largest aggregate in the concrete floor. The finish is
the most chosen when the substrate has been planted with customized aggregates.
On some floors, including the restoration of old concrete, there may be
limitations in the depth at which the floor can be cut. Depth of rough cut of
1/4 inch. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017,



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