As state by (Campbell,
1989) the Solar Quiet (Sq) is a variation of geomagnetic field that excluded
from any solar system disturbances. Sq variation
is closely related to primary source currents
at ionosphere specific at E region (90 – 150 km) altitude. Sq is generated by
dynamo process where the driving mechanism of Sq is ionospheric wind dynamo. Sq
also drove by thermally excited solar tides (Chapman 1919).the ionospheric conductivity
tends to rise up when there have an increasing of Sun activities, hence the
total ionospheric current also increased. Since 1979, studies on Sq analysis
have been carried out extensively for the past decades, but only few research
made that focus on the application of Sq related to Earth interior. As proof,
the study on ionospheric electrodynamic have been done by (Richmond 1979,
1995b) and the magnetosphere and lower atmosphere coupling were conducted by  (Wagner et al. 1980; Richmond 1995b). In the
work of  (Wagner et al. 1980; Richmond
1995b), they successfully determine a base level for geomagnetic indices using
Sq current and (Svalgaard and Cliver 2007; Svalgaard 2016) able to monitor the
solar radiation activity. Last but not least, there is study continuously be
carried out in topic estimating electrical conductivity within the Earth
structure and many areas that have been explored in a number of different
countries by (Campbell and Schiffmacher 1988a; Campbell et al. 1998; Okeke
and Obiora 2016).  The Sq currents that
induced into the Earth’s lithosphere is apparent as the factor that can affect
the underground event. Recently, Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) is one
of the underground events associated with the external origin that causes
adverse effects on the ground-based technological systems. Even though the underground
current is not totally new research, but it’s relatively new in the equatorial
region where this is the first work on GIC located in the equatorial region.
There is numerous research that has been conducted in understanding the
relationship between ionospheric current and the underground ground. The extent
to that, application of Sq current in determining Earth conductivity is
relatively new at Malaysia region where it can be applied for Sq analysis
towards significant finding.  


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