Ethnic diversity has a massive impact on the utilization of common-pool resources. Network structures have been influenced by three key social ties. They include bonding, bridging as well as cross-scaling or linking ties. Social identity theory can be used to explain how these social ties have led to the existence of different social network structures. The affiliation that exists between ethnic diversity and social arrangements is extremely helpful for managers who are running businesses with employees from diverse ethnic groups.
The relationship between ethnicity and social network structures has always determined by how public resources are being utilized. Managers are faced with an extra responsibility of creating bridges between ethnic groups to overcome the barriers to effective collaboration among employees. This article concentrated on the persuasion of ethnic diversity, and its negative effects on the management of common-pool resources. The aim of the author is that the links that exist among the resource user groups should be created to negative ethnicity in the society.
Barnes-Mauthe, Arita, Allen, Gray, & Ping Sun, (2013), have argued that social ties that affect network structures include bonding, bridging as well as cross-scaling or linking ties. The authors state that linking ties can be used to unite diverse groups into one large community network. They argue that the large networks can facilitate external access to resources and knowledge between ethnic groups. Furthermore, it will promote trust among heterogeneous groups and mobilize them to cooperate towards achieving a common goal. In addition, the authors state that cross-scale linkages will assist stakeholders’ comprehension and collaboration and ensure that their interests are well represented in management and policymaking processes. Another key point the authors stress is that ethnicity is the leading cause of homophily. The term is used to explain the tendency of people to associate with individuals who are similar to themselves. In order to prove this ideology, the authors conducted a research by using Hawaii Longline Fishery (HLF) as their study area. They employed the social network analysis (SNA) as their primary methodology. This quantitative method has proved to be the best research tool to be used in analyzing relationships between social groups.
From their research, it was evident that homophily existed between the different fishing communities in HLF. Ethnicity was identified as the most significant factor that promoted homophily in the institution. Social identity theory can be used to explain the social ties and the battle for dominance within the institution. The study showed that each community aimed at defending their superiority within HLF. A mention-worthy point from the article is that language capability and the size of each community’s population determined their social dominance. Members with the highest population occupied the majority of managerial positions within the institution. This article argues that stronger ties within fishing communities hampered the formation of one large social network.
Reflections and Implications
Very few studies have attempted to explain how ethnicity influences resource users’ network. This article is particularly significant given that it explains the creation of social ties and their impact on inter-ethnic cooperation. It has explained how ethnic diversity has led to the development of various network configurations that exist between resource users. The results could have been conclusive if the study had used a substantial study area. It would have been interesting if they examined an institution with several ethnic groups. Because of the highly technical nature of its analysis, this article would be extremely useful for managers running institutions with diverse ethnic groups. It would provide them with the relevant information to create cross-scale linkages between ethnic groups with their institutions.
Barnes-Mauthe, M., Arita, S., Allen, S. D., Gray, S. A., & Ping Sun, L. (2013). The influence for ethnic diversity on social network structure in a common-pool resource system: Implications for collaborative management. Ecology & Society, 18(1), 1-13. Doi: 10.5751/ES-05295-180123.