Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Etiology

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), occasionally referred to as Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) is an intellectual disability. ADHD is an outcome of unremitting disorders in the regions of the brain that control impulse control, alertness and the supervisory functions, which regulate cognitive duties, social associations and motor activity. ADHD is usually common among school-aged children and as such, it appears recurrently among boys than girls. The main symptoms that characterize the disability include impulsivity, inattentiveness, disorderly behavior and hyperactivity as well as academic complexities (Wender, 2001).

Societal Impact

The social effect of ADHD possesses widespread implications on the lives of persons having the disability. In terms of acceptance, most individuals do not recognize the disorder since it exemplifies much of a psychological embodiment. As such, adults and children face negligence from their respective communities based on the concealing nature of the disease. In addition, the disability limits social opportunities since it limits social interactions and further affects the academic and occupational lives of children and adults respectively.

Impact on the Family

Nurturing children with ADHD is stressful and as such affects marriage by leading to enhanced degrees of marital disputes and discontent. Usually, parents lose intimacy and experience disconnection from each other. Siblings will respond dissimilarly to children with ADHD. For instance, some siblings may stay away from their disabled siblings due to embarrassment. At times, siblings may express anger towards their counterparts due to the enormous amount of attention the parents dedicate to their ADHD children. The financial impact is considerable considering the strategies that the parents have to put in terms of medicine and cognitive therapy (Kutscher, Martin & Attwood, 2005). In addition, the social impact of the disorder is inherent in the fact that ADHD forces the victims to experience interpersonal complexities and engage in hyperactive or violent activities that force them to endure peer rejection.

Potential Side Effects

Most of the side effects encompassing ADHD affect cognitive and social development. Usually, ADHD hinders children from learning especially in instances where the learning takes place for a long time. This is because the disability disrupts the normal functioning of the cognitive functions within brain through instances of hyperactivity and inattention that hinder such development within the affected children (Wender, 2001). Additionally, ADHD affects the social development among children, adults as well since their peers reject most of them, and as they become adults, they face interpersonal difficulties that lead to retrenchments from organizations.

Developmental Support

Since acquiring a skill or a different array of aptitudes requires learning, it is vital for children suffering from ADHD to receive developmental support. As such, in order to assist ADHD children in developing skills, the activities provided should focus on learning. For instance, summarization is a strategy that is applicable in teaching ADHD children since it involves the child reading in brief sections of time and checking that they understand what they have learnt in those sections (Kutscher, Martin & Attwood, 2005). Learning can also take place in a diversion-free surrounding. Additionally, visual aids and handouts can be useful in skill development through learning.

Classroom Teaching Strategies

Teachers can take advantage of various teaching essentials for ADHD children. For instance, teachers can allow the children to use calculators and other devices such as dictionaries and thesaurus during examinations. Teachers can also provide brief oral instructions that will not confuse or distract the children. Additionally, teachers can provide the syllabus before the semester begins. Teachers can also use blank papers for reading assistance. Alternately, teachers can take advantage of materials such as taped texts and tape recorders in order to allow the child to listen without need for primary materials such as books.

LRE Accommodations

As disabled children, ADHD children can also learn in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). As such, the LRE considers various accommodations in order to determine if the child require a special needs education. One accommodation is the capacity to focus. Usually, ADHD children do not focus and as such require an environment that is free from distraction. The other accommodation involves personally designed instruction. This requires consideration since ADHD children are prone to learning difficulties based on the nature of their disorder and as such, require unique instructional methods that will meet their needs.

Works Cited

Kutscher, Martin L, Tony Attwood, and Robert R. Wolff. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, Ld, Asperger’s, Tourette’s, Bipolar, and More!: The One Stop Guide for Parents, Teachers, and Other Professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2005. Print.

Wender, Paul H. ADHD: Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.