2.1 Definition of Social Foundations?SocialFoundations of Education is an interdisciplinary plans those things to see the powerof historical, cultural social and theoretical forces on education. Theinterdisciplinary character of the Social Foundations occupation allows us towelcome prospective students with varied interests and diverse academicbackgrounds, the humanities, and social sciences including education.
Explainedby the American Educational Studies organization, it is a”broadly-conceived meadow of learn that derives its character andfundamental theories from a quantity of, combinations of disciplines and academicdisciplines, and area studies: history, philosophy, sociology, religion,anthropology, economics, psychology political science, proportional and global learning,learning guiding principle studies and learning studies.” Our courses arealso ideal for contributing to the professional development of students inother human service and administrative professions. Defined by the AmericanEducational Studies Association, it is a “broadly-conceived field of studythat derives its character and fundamental theories from a number of academic disciplines,combinations of disciplines, and area studies: history, philosophy, sociology,anthropology, religion, political science, economics, psychology, comparativeand international education, educational studies, and educational policystudies.” Social Foundations former students are arranged to work asteachers and researchers in advanced learning, to advance teaching careers in basicand secondary schools, or to look for policy-making and investigate positionsin an array of organizations, including schools, legislative, andnon-governmental institutions both in the United States and out of the country.Social Foundations offers further than community skills; we are anaccommodating community knowledge group of people.
We provide significant,sensible and in detail social development for our students and perceptive andsubstantive education for parents. Social Foundations is a accommodatingSocial learning district that helps our students develop theirsocial acumen from the inside out. We help our students develop firm basics in educationthen, perspective flexibility taking and self-regulation they need to build andkeep healthy relations that are necessary to a good life. And we help theirfamilies learn how best to support them as they develop self-assurance andskill in considerate and navigating all kinds of associations.2.2 SCFD at OSUSCFD at OSU is recognized for its rigorous program, itsexcellence in teaching and research, and its strong commitment to knowledgeproduction and methodology conceptualization. The SCFD Ph.D.
program requiresrigorous preparation in research design and methodology, and all students areencouraged to collaborate, present, and publish scholarly papers. Ourinternationally respected team of scholars has research expertise in a broadrange of areas and methodologies that can support individual students’development as scholars. 2.
3 Social Foundations HelpsSpecial-Needs Kids Build Skills2.3.1 Built on Michelle Winner’s ‘Social Thinking’concept, the mom-run Santa Monica business touts social awareness.MomsSuzanne Tabachnick and Kelly Priest met seven years back in anearly-intervention series for children on the autism spectrum. They have an instantaneouscorrelation. Priest has a Master’s degree in clinical psychology and severalyears of experience working with families. She attended conferences on “SocialThinking,” a concept pioneered by speech languagepathologist Michelle Winner, and shared her interest in the approach withTabachnick, who then completed mentorship and clinical internship training withWinner at the Center for Social Thinking in San Jose.
“Kelly and I kept talkingabout all these ideas we had and we realized that together we could do so muchmore,” recalls Tabachnick. They launched Social Foundations in 2006 in a smallspace in Culver City, which they outgrew in the first five months. They outgrewtheir second office in Santa Monica eight months afterward. Currently working sincelocations in Santa Monica and Sherman Oaks, Tabachnick and Priest – along withthree therapists and one assistant – have a growing practice focused onproviding kids with practical tools to better understand social cues, interactin groups and develop friendships. Some of their students are on the autism spectrum;others have learning differences and some have no specific diagnosis, but facemany social challenges.”Sociallearning is about building insight and awareness of yourself and of othersaround you,” says Priest. “A lot of the kids we see are not even aware thattheir behavior is disturbing further people’s mind-set.”Throughinteractive play and group projects the students begin to better understandcollaboration and consideration for others’ perspectives.
By using specificwords and phrases such as “because” or “let’s try this” to explain theirthinking and actions, they turn out to be improved advocates for themselves.Minister and Tabachnick get great satisfaction when their students receive aninvitation to a party or a sleepover. “It’s so rewarding when parents tell ustheir kids are finally making real friends,” says minister. “Our goal be intendedfor our students to have typical Childhood experiences … go on camping trips,be in a play, join a sports team,” adds Tabachnick.2.4 The social and medical models of disabilityThere are a number of ‘models’ of disability which havebeen defined over the last small number of years.
The two most frequentlymentioned are the ‘social’ and the ‘medical’ models of disability. The medicalmodel of disability views disability as a ‘problem’ that belongs to thedisabled individual. It is not seen as an issue to concern anyone other thanthe individualaffected. The social model of disability, in contrast, would see the steps asthe disabling barrier. This model draws on the idea that it is society thatdisables people, throughout designing the whole thing to meet the requirementsof the popular of citizens who are not disabled.
There is a acknowledgment insidethe social model that there is a great deal that society can do to decrease,and ultimately remove, some of these disabling barriers, and that this task isthe responsibility of society, rather than the disabled person. For example, ifa wheelchair using student is not capable to get into a building because ofsome steps, the medical model would suggest that this is because of thewheelchair, rather than the steps. Some examples of a medical model approach might be:The social model is more inclusive in approach.Pro-active thought is given to how disabled people can participate inactivities on an equal footing with non-disabled people. Certain adjustmentsare made, even where this involves time or money, to ensure that disabledpeople are not excluded. The onus is on the organizer of the event or activityto make sure that their activity is accessible. A course leader who refuses toproduce a hand-out in a larger font for a visually impaired student.
Thestudent cannot therefore participate in the class discussion; A member of staffwho refuses to make available a copy of a PowerPoint presentation before alecture. This create a barrier to learning for the dyslexic students in thegroup who are likely to have a slower processing and writing speed and who willstruggle to understand and record the key points; A Students’ Union societythat organizes an event that is not accessible to disabled members.This medical model approach is based on a belief that thedifficulties associated with the disability should be borne wholly by thedisabled person, and that the disabled person should make extra effort (perhapsin time and/or money) to ensure that they do not inconvenience anyone elseExamples might be: A Students’ Union society that consults with disabledmembers before organizing an event in order to make sure that the venue isaccessible.A course leader who meets with a visually impaired memberof the group before the beginning of a course to find out how hand-outs can beadapted so that the student can read them;A member of staff who makes PowerPoint presentationsavailable on Blackboard to all members of the group before a lecture. Thisallows dyslexic students to look up unfamiliar terminology before the lecture,and gives them an idea of the structure that will be followed. This ‘framing’helps students to understand and retain the information;Many people are willing to adopt the social model and tomake adjustments for students who have a visible disability.
However, they arenot as accommodating with students who have a hidden disability, or adisability that is not clearly understood. An important principle of the socialmodel is that the individual is the expert on their requirements in aparticular situation, and that this should be respected, regardless of whetherthe disability is obvious or not.2.
5 The Social Model vs. the Medical Model of Disability2.5.1Social model of disabilityThesocial model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society isorganized, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. It looks at waysof removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people. Whenbarriers are removed, disabled people can be independent and equal in society,with choice and control over their own lives. Disabled people developed thesocial model of disability because the traditional medical model did notexplain their personal experience of disability or help to develop moreinclusive ways of living.
(Impairmentis defined as the limitation of a person’s physical, mental or sensory functionon a long-term basis.) Changingattitudes to disabled peopleBarriersare not just physical. Attitudes found in society, based on prejudice orstereotype (also called (disablism), also disable people from havingequal opportunities to be part of society.2.5.
2Medical model of disabilityThesocial model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society isorganized. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by theirimpairments or differences. Under the medical model, these impairments ordifferences should be ‘fixed’ or changed by medical and other treatments, evenwhen the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness. The medicalmodel looks at what is ‘wrong’ with the person and not what the person needs.It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice andcontrol in their own lives.Social model of disability: some examplesAwheelchair user wants to get into a building with a step at the entrance.
Undera social model solution, a ramp would be added to the entrance so that thewheelchair user is free to go into the building immediately. Using the medicalmodel, there are very few solutions to help wheelchair users to climb stairs,which excludes them from many essential and leisure activities Ateenager with a learning difficulty wants to work towards living independentlyin their own home but is unsure how to pay the rent. Under the social model,the person would be supported so that they are enabled to pay rent and live intheir own home. Under a medical model, the young person might be expected tolive in a communal home. A child with a visual impairment wants to readthe latest best-selling book to chat about with their sighted friends.
Under the medical model, there are very few solutions but a social modelsolution ensures full text audio-recordings are available when the book isfirst published. This means children with visual impairments can join inwith cultural activities on an equal basis with everyone else.2.6 WHAT IS SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION?Social Foundations of Education draws upon severaldisciplines and fields to examine education, namely history, philosophy,comparative/ international education, cultural studies, sociology, andpolitical science. Social Foundations inquiry helps to sharpen students’capacities to understand, analyze, and explain educational issues, policies,and practices in order to improve education. Thus, the purpose of SocialFoundations study is to draw upon these humanities and social sciencedisciplines to develop students’ interpretive, normative, and criticalperspectives on education, both inside and outside of schools (Council for Social Foundations of Education, 1996,2004). The development of such perspectives helps educators to”exercise sensitive judgments amidst competing cultural and education valuesand beliefs” (CSFE, 1996). Rather than reducing education to a formula for bestpractice, courses in the Social Foundations of Education challenge students tothink deeply about the relationships between education (formal and informal)and society(is) at large.
Social Foundations encourages educator’s use”critical judgment to question educational assumptions and arrangements and toidentify contradictions and inconsistencies among social and educational values,policies, and practices” (CSFE, 2004).