70% of the earth, the ocean and the sea providefood and also water for human. Deep inside the ocean, is the habitat for manykinds of marine biota. Such as, fishes, coral reefs, turtles, whales, molluscs,crustacean, sea plants, and many more. The ocean is also the gate for petroleummining activity. Because, beneath the seabed and the ocean floor are the placeswhere the petroleum can be found. Ocean also became a part of world’s sailors’adventures. We are very familiar with the story of how sailors from the pastlike Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus roamed the sea with their ships anddiscovered islands and paths that are eventually very useful for humanactivities until this very day.
And, sea is also one the of most favoritedestinations for holiday. The scenery that it serves, interest many touriststhat are looking for some refreshing time. But sadly, the condition of the oceans, seas, andmarine resources this earth has, keep decreasing day by day. There are manyreasons as to why fishes are found dead, coral reefs are destructed, and thenumber of dolphins and whales are keep decreasing. The main reason ispollution. Land-based sources dominated up to 80% of marine pollution thatcontaminated the ocean including marine habitats (UNESCO).This also happens in Indonesia. Known as thebiggest archipelagic state, yet so many of Indonesia’s seas are contaminated bypollution.
Plastics are very common to be found, especially in seas nearland-area. This is why this issue has also gained attentionfrom Indonesia’s government. Because the seas that Indonesia has are veryimportant for Indonesia’s people and Indonesia itself.
If we look at itgeographically, the seas seem to divide Indonesia because of how wide the seasthat separate islands of Indonesia. On the contrary, because of the vital rolethat it holds and the treasured marine resources spreading in all over the seasthe sea of Indonesia is what unites all of us. Based on that issue, the writer decided to choose”Life Below Water” as the theme for this paper to know more about the cause ofthe issue and the impacts it creates. Also, to know the important role ofIndonesia’s seas for Indonesia.
1.1 ProblemFormulationFrom issue background above, it can be taken a severalproblems:1. What is the definition of ocean, sea, marineresources, and marine pollution?2. What is the current condition of the world’socean, seas, and marine resources?3. How is the current condition of the seas andmarine resources in Indonesia?4. How Pancasila and Citizenship’s see Indonesia’ssea issues?5. What are the solutions for the Indonesian’s seaissues?1.2 Purpose1.
To know the definition of ocean, sea, marineresources, and marine pollution.2. To know about the critical condition of theworld’s oceans, seas, and marine resources today.3. To know about the current condition ofIndonesia’s sea issues.4. To know how important the role of Indonesia’s seatowards the union of Indonesia.5.
To know the solutions for reducing andcontrolling the problem that the ocean, sea, and marine resources have to facetoday. CHAPTER IIDISCUSSION 2.1 Definition ofClimate ChangeAccording to Oxford Dictionary, the meaning ofocean is a very large expanse of sea, whereas each of the main areas into whichthe sea is divided geographically. : -A verylarge expanse of sea, in particular each of the main areas into which the seais divided geographically (Oxford) Thedefinition that comes from Princeton University is more focusing on the one ofthe Ocean’s role which is a large body of water that constituting a principalpart of the hydrosphere.-a large body of water constituting a principalpart of the hydrosphere. (Princeton University)Ocean is also a body of salt water that coversalmost three fourths of the surface of the earth- the whole body of salt waterthat covers nearly three fourths of the surface of the earth (Merriam-Webster)From those three definitions of ocean, we cantake say that ocean is a large expanse of water that covers almost the entiresurface of the earth and has a part in hydrosphere and also contains salt.The meaning of the sea from Oxford Dictionary isthe expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surroundsits land masses. (Oxford, 2018) while Princeton University explains sea as adivision of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land)(Princeton University)Based on those two definitions, we can say thatsea is an expanse of salt water and a division of an ocean.
The main differencebetween ocean and sea is the size. The ocean is wider that the sea, that’s whyseas are part of the ocean. And most of the seas are located near land-area.
Marine resources: Marine resources are materialsand attributes found in the ocean that are considered to have value. That valuecan be intrinsic, or monetary. They include a huge number of things: biologicaldiversity, fish and seafood supplies, oil and gas, minerals, sand and gravel,renewable energy resources, tourism potential, and unique ecosystems like coralreefs. (Study.com)UNCLOS defines marine pollution the introductionby man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marineenvironment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in suchdeleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards tohuman health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and otherlegitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water andreduction of amenities (United Nation, 1982).
2.2 Causes of ClimateChange2.2.1The Role of The World’s Oceans, Seas, and Marine ResourcesThe World’s ocean, seas, and marine resources have a lot of important rolesfor human wellbeing. Over 3 billion people depend on marine and coastalresources for their livelihoods (Secretariat of The Convention on BiologicalDiversity, 2012). Ocean absorbs more CO2 than the atmosphere. Ocean waters havethe capacity to absorb vast amounts of the greenhouse-warming gas carbondioxide (CO2), and thus have helped to buffer human-caused global warming andclimate change (WWF).
Oceans capture and store about 30% of carbon dioxideproduced by humans (UNEP, 2009). EDIT TEROSIt’s not just ocean life that depends on phytoplankton. Marinephytoplankton estimated produces 50% of oxygen on Earth (IOC/UNESCO, IMO, FAO,UNDP, 2011).
The oceans are also an integral part of the water cycle. Vastamounts of water evaporate from the ocean surface, rising into the atmosphereas water vapor. When this vapor collides with colder air, it condenses to formclouds and rain. (WWF)As we all know, world’s oceans are filled with marine resources. Diversemarine species from animal to plants, all of them are reside inside the oceansand the seas.
There are species which we have heard often, but there are alsospecies that we might never heard of and they live in the dark deep inside theocean where the light can’t even penetrate. No wonder if there are stillspecies that haven’t been discovered and can’t be classified yet. Thus, therichness of marine species will have no end. Home for many marine species, hence the next role of the world’s ocean isone of human’s sources of food and water. Among the variety of marine species,some of them are edible for human and it’s very well-known that seafoods arerich with protein which is good for our brain.
Fish provide 4.3 billion peoplewith at least 15% of their intake of animal protein (FAO, 2012). Moreover,another resource we can get from the oceans are salt and petroleum.
The world’s oceans and seas are also function as the paths for shippingactivity. The massive size of the ships makes it possible to carry tons ofgoods and often help people crossing from one place to another every day and italso costs less compare to shipping using planes. Oceans and seas are famousfor the beautiful sceneries, no wonder people like to go to seas as holidaydestinations to recharge the body and mind. 2.2.2The Current Problems about Our Oceans, Seas, and Marine Resources and the Impacts Are closely related to human’s lives because of the benefits they have,doesn’t make our ocean and marine resources free from damage. Instead, human’sevil hands are the one that cause it.
Marine pollution and destructive fishingare only some of the problem that have been happening to our oceans, seas, andmarine resources.Starting from marine pollution. There are several sources of marinepollution, such as domestic waste, industrial and agricultural effluents, theresults of the exploration and exploitation of the mineral resources of thesea-bed, radio-active waste, fishing tools, oil spilled from ships, andmilitary pollution through dumping of poisonous gases and explosions(Danusaputro, 1981).Land-based sources of pollution contribute approximately 80% of marinepollution, globally (UNESCO, 2015). Plastic debris are one of the pollutionthat pollute the ocean and seas.
Plastic debris come from human activities, andmost of them come from human activities that take place in sea near land-area(Katsanevakis, 2008). Every year, the amount of plastic that got carried intothe ocean reach the number of 10 million tons worth of plastic.The next threat is destructive fishing. Destructive fishing has a lot of methods. All of them are destructiveand leave a horrible impact toward our marine biota.
Some of the methods are,spear fishing, dynamite fishing, beach seining, poisoning, and there’s also athing called ghost fishing. Ghost fishing occurs when nets and other fishingtools are accidentally or intentionally abandoned in the sea. These netscontinue to trap fish and even large marine mammals.
The worst is those fishesand marine mammals could die due to exhaustion or suffocation after strugglingto escape the net and not able to go the surface to breathe.Ghost fishing can also be considered as marine pollution. That’s why theimpacts are almost the same. Marine animals are often got entangled with theplastic debris or discarded fishing tools and this could let them to deathbecause entangled to the plastic debris slows their swim moves so they are unableto look for food or even avoid predators. In another case, there are marineanimals that ingest plastic because they can’t tell the difference betweentheir real food and plastics as all of them are floating in the ocean.
But,this could also happen because the real food for those marine animals aredeclining due to the unhealthy condition of the ocean. Worldwatch Institutereports that at least 267 species of marine wildlife are known to have sufferedfrom entanglement or ingestion of marine debris, most of which is composed ofplastic (Schilling, 2014). UNESCO alsostated that the impacts are not just attacking marine animals that live insidethe ocean, but also seabirds. More than a million seabirds die every yearbecause of plastic debris, as well as 100,000 marine mammals (United Nation,2015).Impacts that come from destructive fishing are not less horrible. Dynamiteand other explosive fishing methods destroy habitats and coral reefs.
Usingpoisons obviously could kill other organisms. Not to mention, it is also athreat for the habitat of marine animals that their existence is on the vergeof extinction such as dolphins, whales, sharks and sea turtles. In Asia,fishers are very used to catch shark just to get their fins.
Once they cut thefin, they would dump the shark back to where it came from. The problem is,shark’s moves will get slowed down because its fins have gone followed bybleeding, makes it hard for the shark to find prey and avoid predators andeventually the shark would be dead.2.3 Human Roles forClimate ChangeAs an archipelagic state, Indonesia has numerousislands.
There are 17,508 islands in total making Indonesia the biggestarchipelagic state. The total maritime area of Indonesia is 5.8 million km2 andin 2014, the length of Indonesia’s coastline is 99, 093 km.
Seeing how wide themaritime area of Indonesia is, surely, it’s filled with rich marine resources.From fishes, marine mammals, coral reefs, and mangroves, Indonesia has all ofthem in large quantity. Coral Triangle is an area of seas that have thehighest marine biodiversity.
It consists of six countries and the largest areais covered by Indonesia. Indonesia is the home for 37% of coral reef fishspecies and 76% of the world’s coral species. Scientists from around the world admitthat the coral reefs in Raja Ampat is the center of the world’s coral reefbiodiversity. Not just the center of coral reef biodiversity, Indonesia is alsothe center of the world’s mangroves diversity as well. According to FAO, thereare 48 species of mangrove in Indonesia.Besides coral reefs and mangroves, Indonesia isrich with fishery resources as well. Our need of animal protein is suppliedaround 54% from Indonesia’s seafood.
And around 10% of the world’s marinecommodities is supplied by Indonesia. Other than fish, oil and mining are oneof Indonesia’s marine resources as well. Oil production mostly takes place inJava Sea, while the source of liquified natural gas is mostly located inKalimantan.Another interesting thing that comes from the depthof the Indonesia’s sea is historical relic from the past that become treasure.For example, in September 2017, The Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheriesalong with the Natuna’s Government were working together to save the treasurethat lies inside the Natuna’s waters. This is only one example, for there areso many hidden treasure that hasn’t yet been discovered.Having many prodigious of marine resources(living and non-living) opens up the possibilities for jobs. Not to mention,one of the biggest source of Indonesia’s income is from tourism and Indonesiais very famous for its beautiful beaches and seas.
Bali, Raja Ampat, Lombok,are only a few of well-known holiday destinations in Indonesia. Where in fact,Indonesia still keeps so many hidden gems. 2.4 ClimateChange’s ImpactIt is very unfortunate to say that Indonesia’s seas and marine resourcesare not free from threats. The act of IUU (Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated) inform of overfishing, destructive fishing, and also fish-stealing, are stillhappening in Indonesia. and we can’talso ignore the fact that marine pollution happens in Indonesia as well.
Overfishing has been threatening Indonesia’s marine life and this causesdepleting stocks. As the largest archipelago state, no wonder if Indonesia hasa very potential fish resources. Based on Indonesia’s Central Bureau ofStatistics, Indonesia has around 6.5 million tons of fish resources per year.Though, it is estimated that up to 72.44% of fish resources of Indonesia hasbeen overfishing.
The remaining species of fish that still can be used is onlyaround 27.56% (Setiyowati, Ayub, & Zulkifli, 2016).Threat also comes from outside Indonesia. And they come precisely fromcountries nearby. In 2015, in total, there are 84 foreign fishing ships capturedfor committing fish stealing in Indonesia. Vietnam has the most captured ships,the amount is 46 ships, then followed by Philippines for 19 captured ships,Malaysia has 12 captured ships, and last but not least, Thailand with 7captured ships (Rochman Nurhakim, et al., 2016).Based on the data provided by Indonesia’s Central Bureau of Statistics, asthe result of mining activities (oil exploration), there are 42 cases regardingoil spills in the Indonesia’s water during the year of 1997-2016 (Setiyowati,Ayub, & Zulkifli, 2016).
And Indonesia also holds the second place for thebiggest contributor plastic debris into the sea after China.2.5 Pancasila andUU Perspective to Climate ChangeAs we all know, Pancasila has five precepts.
The second precept is “Justiceand Civilized Humanity”. This precept contains the moral value to be a just andcivilized human being toward another human being and also another livingcreatures including marine living creatures. Based on the second precept, weneed to help in stopping fishermen from using destructive fishing tools andstart using the safer one. So that our seas and all the creatures that liveswithin the sea can be spared from the damage. We also need to participate inconserving our marine biodiversity by not being greedy and overexploit marineresources.The third precept states, “The Unity of Indonesia”. It took centuries forIndonesia to be able to finally united as one, as Indonesia, as a free fromcolonialism state.
Holds the title as “The Biggest Archipelagic State”, it isnot an easy job to keep the union. We are all aware of the fact that the marinearea of Indonesia is quite wide. Indeed, because of that we can have plenty ofmarine resources, but on the other hand, it can also become our point of weakness.Take a look at some of the criminal or illegal doings that relate to marinearea such as illegal fishing that’s still happening. And, the waters ofIndonesia are often used for criminals to do their crime such as drug smuggling, wildlife animalstrade, and human trafficking via water shipping that are still exist until today.This proves that we all need to work together along with government to stop or at leastdeclining the number of all those illegal doings and prevent our futuregeneration from the evilness of drugs and human trafficking and to be able topass down our marine resources to them.
AsIndonesian citizen, we need to see our seas as what unites us all, not whatseparates us.We need to feel grateful by the richness of our marine resources. Spread fromSabang to Merauke, all kinds of marine resources.
Years ago, Indonesia’sterritorial sea wasn’t as wide today and we might never been able to enjoy ourmarine resources if it wasn’t for the fight our Founding-Fathers had to strivefor just so Indonesia’s people can take what’s right for us. What we deserved. Thewidth of Indonesia’s territorial sea was only 3 miles long based on the regulation that was published by the Netherland for Indonesiain 1939. 3 miles was obviously too small compare to the rest of the sea thatsurroundsinside and outside of Indonesia.
So, many Indonesia’s figures fought for therights of Indonesia to be able to expand the width of its territorial sea andit wasn’t a smooth journey. Finally, in 1957, Djuanda Kartawidjaja succeeded. 3miles changed to 12 miles. And it was a big moment for Indonesia.
So many blood, sweat, and tears, even lives fromour heroes that have fought for our country’s union long time ago. Now, it isour job to payback for their hard work by working together to restore our seaand marine resource’s condition so that it could be as good, as blue, and asclear as it used to be. Also, we shall not forget our responsibility as Indonesia’s citizen toalways take part in defending our country’s security in order to maintain ourunion and the integrity of the Republic of Indonesia. Just as stated in the1945 Constitution of The republic of Indonesia Article 30 Paragraph 1, “Everycitizen shall have the right and duty to participate in the defence and securityof the state”.As stated in the 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia Article 33Paragraph 2, “The land, the waters and the natural resources within shall beunder the powers of the State and shall be used to the greatest benefit of thepeople”. Realizing the importance of the sea for Indonesia, The Indonesian’sgovernment has also published several regulations in order to objectify Article33, such as:a.
Act. No. 5/1983, on the Indonesia ExclusiveEconomic Zone.b. Act No. 6/1996, on Indonesia’s Waters.
c. Act No. 21/1999, on Agreement for theImplementation of The Provisions of the United Nations Convention on The Law ofThe Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management ofStraddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.d. Act No. 45/2009 on the Conversion of UUNo.31/2004 about Fisheries.e.
Act No.1/2014 on the Conversion of UU No.27/2007about Regional Management of Coastal and Small Islands.f. Act No.
34/2014 on Marine.g. Government Regulation Number 15 of 1984 onNatural Resource Management in the Indonesia Exclusive Economic Zone.h. The Decree of The Minister of Marine Affairs andFisheries of The Republic of Indonesia No.
3A/2015, on the Task ForceUnit for Prevention and Eradication of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing.i. Minister of Marine Affairs and FisheriesRegulation No.56/2016, on Prohibition of Lobster Cuting and/or Expenditure (Panulusus spp.), Crab (Scylla spp.) and Rajungan (Portunus spp.) from the State Territoryof The Republic of Indonesia.