In
this experiment, an acid-base extraction was performed for the purpose of
separating a mixture of benzoic acid, 4-chloroaniline, and naphthalene. After
each has been isolated, a melting point apparatus was utilized to measure the
melting point of each compound.

 Extraction is a fundamental type of technique
experiment. The most critical of extractions applied in Organic Chemistry are
solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and acid-base extractions. In a solid-liquid
extraction, a solid compound is dissolved into a liquid permissible for that
substance, and then is removed through a filtration process. The primitive goal
behind the concept of a liquid-liquid extraction is to resolve a solution with
an unequal dispersion of a solute between two immiscible solvents. 1 This
particular experiment is composed of an acid-base extraction, in which there
are subsequent liquid-liquid extractions in attempt to isolate acids and bases
from a mixed solution using knowledge of their chemical properties.

Solvent
systems for extraction experiments must follow a few guidelines to ensure successful
results. Solvents must freely dissolve the extraction substance, should not react
with this substance, should not be able to combine with the water, and should have
a relatively low boiling point to make it easy to remove.

During
this acid-base extraction, the first to be isolated from the mixture in the separatory
funnel was the 4-chloroaniline, followed by the benzoic acid, and then finally the
naphthalene. To extract the 4-chloroaniline, a base, was combined with an aqueous
acid to form a salt, which was then treated with a strong ionic base, NaOH, in order
to regenerate. Similarly, benzoic acid, an organic acid was united with NaOH, its
contrary, to form a salt and then again with HCl, a strong organic acid to uncover
the acidity in the solution. The aqueous layer was then disposed of, with the neutral
compound, naphthalene, left to be evaporated from the organic layer. 

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