8th grade Chapter 15 body systems test review1 How many bones are in the adult human body 206 bones 2 What is the main function of the skeletal system as well as a network of tendons ligaments and cartilage that connects them 3 What is bone marrow a soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones in which blood cells are produced4 What are the 4 types of joints Hinge  interphalangeal joints  fingers and toesBall and socket eg hip and shoulder jointsPivot eg atlantoaxial joint between the atlas and axis  neckGliding  Condyloid joint eg between radius scaphoid and lunate bones  wrist5 Name a joint in your body for each type of joint from 4 Hinge6 What is cartilage flexible connective tissue 7 Briefly describe ONE problem of the skeletal system Osteoporosis8 What is the difference between ligaments and tendons Tendons may also attach muscles to structures such as the eyeball A tendon serves to move the bone or structure A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone and usually serves to hold structures together and keep them stable9 Tell me how nerves are linked to the muscular system Receptors in muscles provide the brain with information about body position and movement The brain controls the contraction of skeletal muscle The nervous system regulates the speed at which food moves through the digestive tract10 What are the three types of muscle and give an example of each In the muscular system muscle tissue is categorized into three distinct types skeletal cardiac and smooth Skeletal muscle moves bones and other structures Cardiac muscle contracts the heart 11 Name three muscles and their location in the body Arm Biceps This large muscle of the upper arm is formally known as the biceps brachii muscle and rests on top of the humerus bone It rotates the forearm and also flexes the elbow Triceps This large muscle in the back of the upper arm helps straighten the arm It is formally known as the triceps brachii muscle Brachioradialis This muscle located at the top of the forearm near the elbow helps rotate the forearm both outwardly and inwardly It also flexes the forearm at the elbow12 Name a problem with the muscular 13 describe systemic and pulmonary circulation Systemic Circulation Systemic circulation is the movement of blood from the heart through the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body while bringing deoxygenated blood back to the heart Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium from the pulmonary veins14 What are red blood cells less technical term for erythrocyte15 What are white blood cells White blood cells WBCs also called leukocytes or leucocytes are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells16 What is hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin abbreviated Hb or Hgb is the iron containing oxygen transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates17 What are platelets Platelets also called thrombocytes are a component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries18 what is plasma the colorless fluid part of blood lymph or milk in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended19 What causes a stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to your brain is interrupted or reduced This deprives your brain of oxygen and nutrients which can cause your brain cells to die A stroke may be caused by a blocked artery ischemic stroke or the leaking or bursting of a blood vessel hemorrhagic stroke20 What causes a heart attack A heart attack occurs when one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked Over time a coronary artery can narrow from the buildup of various substances including cholesterol atherosclerosis This condition known as coronary artery disease causes most heart attacks21 What does the epiglottis do The epiglottis is a leaf shaped flap of cartilage located behind the tongue at the top of the larynx or voice box The main function of the epiglottis is to seal off the windpipe during eating so that food is not accidentally inhaled  Swelling of the epiglottis is called epiglottitis22 What are some problems that affect your respiratory system Some common problems of the respiratory system include asthma – wheezing and breathlessness caused by a narrowing of the airways bronchitis – inflammation of the lungs mucous lining emphysema – disease of the alveoli23 What is the trachea The trachea or windpipe is a wide hollow tube that connects the larynx or voice box to the bronchi of the lungs It is an integral part of the body’s airway and has the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration24 What is the importance of the diaphragm The diaphragm is the dome shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process Also known as the thoracic diaphragm it serves as an important anatomical landmark that separates the thorax or chest from the abdomen25 What are alveoli any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange26 What are neurons A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system  Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms27 28 What is the somatic system The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for carrying motor and sensory information both to and from the central nervous system This system is made up of nerves that connect to the skin sensory organs and all skeletal muscles29 What is the autonomic system The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate digestion respiratory rate pupillary response urination and sexual arousal30 What does saliva do The digestive functions of saliva include moistening food and helping to create a food bolus so it can be swallowed easily Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks some starches down into maltose and dextrin Thus digestion of food occurs within the mouth even before food reaches the stomach31 What is the main purpose of small intestine The small intestine is the part of the intestines where 90% of the digestion and absorption of food occurs the other 10% taking place in the stomach and large intestine The main function of the small intestine is absorption of nutrients and minerals from food32 Name the function of liver gallbladder and pancreas One of the main functions of the liver and pancreas is to aid food digestion The liver makes the digestive fluid bile which is stored in the gallbladder The pancreas makes digestive enzymes These organs have other vital functions33 What is excretion 34 What is a gland an organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings35 Name 3 glands and their purpose These glands secrete their products through the basal lamina into the bloodstream and lack a duct system These glands often secrete hormones and play an important role in maintaining homeostasis The pineal gland thymus gland pituitary gland thyroid gland and the two adrenal glands are all endocrine glands36 What is a problem of the endocrine system The endocrine system influences how your heart beats how your bones and tissues grow even your ability to make a baby It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes thyroid disease growth disorders sexual dysfunction and a host of other hormone related disorders37 what are the 2 reproductive cells While mitosis produces 2 daughter cells from each parent cell meiosis results in 4 sex cells or gametes in males and 1 in females 38 What is ejaculationEjaculation is the discharge of semen from the male reproductive tract usually accompanied by orgasm It is the final stage and natural objective of male sexual stimulation and an essential component of natural conception39 What is ovulation Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries In humans this event occurs when the follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells After ovulation during the luteal phase the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm 40 What is menstruation the process in a woman of discharging blood and other materials from the lining of the uterus at intervals of about one lunar month from puberty until menopause except during pregnancy


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