A ConceptAnalysis: Self-Care            Aconcept provides the basic foundations and the essential framework for anydiscipline. The concept itself represents an icon of the advanced thought knownas the theory, the concept of the theory is what the researcher will beconcentrating on in order to attest or justify their assumptions. The concept Iwill be centering on will be Self-Care, the nursing theory associated withSelf-Care is Dorotheas Orem’s Theory of Self-Care Deficit. The selected nursingpractice will be nursing education which where I will apply how I am able touse theory within my selected practice. Within this paper I will be explainingthe concept of Self-Care and its theme and ideas using scholarly literaturesources. I will also be defining attributes of Self-Care, as well identifyingantecedents and consequences, two empirical referents of the nursing concept ofSelf-Care and be identifying a model case, borderline case and a contrary case.

Lastly, I will speak on the theoretical application of the concept byexplaining the purpose of the concept analysis to the theory and how theconcept applies to the theory. Concept analysis is an imperative step needed inorder to provide precision that is needed in order to help the researcheridentify the antecedents, consequences and attributes. Explanation of Self-CareThe definitionof Self-Care is the practice of taking action to preserve or improve one’s ownhealth. The practice of taking an active role in protecting one’s own health,well-being and happiness. It is also known as the care of self without medicalor other consultation. Care for one self.

(Merriam Webster Dictionary) Humansinstinctively need to sustain their health mentally and psychologically. Dynamicsthat broadly influence the patient to regress on Self-Care can be influencessuch as depression, beliefs, socioeconomic status, education level and ofcourse environmental factors. Self-Care is referred to as one’s independence,autonomy, individual accountability and self-guidance. (Hasanpour-Dehkordi,2016)Literature ReviewThe theme of theconcept Self-Care is to help encourage individuals to play an active role intheir own care. The significance of the Self-Care concept is related to how humanneeds are for maintaining and promoting health and recovery. Self-Care activitiesalleviate symptoms and complications of diseases, shorten recovery, and reducehospital stay and rehabilitation rate. (Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Mohammadi, &Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, 2016) Orem’s postulations of Self-Care was that people shouldbe self-reliant and accountable for their own care. Orem identified the provisionsalso known as the ADL’s as a person’s intake of food, air and water.

How theydeal with elimination care, their balance between activities and rest, how theybalance solitude and social interactions, the prevention of hazards, and the promotionof functioning. (Self-Care Deficit Theory, 2016) The attributes related toself-care defined by humans are having the mental competences to be able to assessa situation, judge it and make decisions about the factors and how they willcontribute to their health. (Orem, Renpenning, & Taylor, 2003) Theseattributes act as the ideas of exactly what we are looking for within theconcept of self-care. When looking into the idea of self-care as professionalnurses in order for us to determine the presence of self-care patients need tobe asked questions and we need to make sure we receive verbal read back ofinformation given.

Asking patients questions about how they produce self-carefor themselves will help measure their knowledge of their deficit. (Self-CareDeficit Theory, 2016) If patients demonstrate positive self-care habits they willreach optimal health, which is the goal.  Defining AttributesThree attributes of the concept of Self-Care defined by humansare having the mental competences to be able to assess a situation, judge it andmake decisions about the factors and how they will contribute to their health. (Orem,Renpenning, & Taylor, 2003) For example, a mentally ill patient whom wasdischarged and placed on a medication regimen whom feels after a couple weeksthat he feels better and no longer needs to be on medications.

He then choosesto come off medication and perhaps even self-medicate with drugs or alcohol. Heis unable to assess the situation and judge his actions. He is deficit in theconcept of self-care. Second attribute is the persons self interest in beingable to take care of ones-self in order to achieve the competency of self-care.For example, a patient whom is discharged and continues to go to all outpatientappointments, sticks to medication regimen and wants to take care of himself inorder to optimize his health. Third attribute I feel is the fact that thepatient is able to actually perform the self-care task fittingly. Orem’s theorycomes into play because as professional nurses, our task is to be able toidentify where the patient is deficient in and help the patient with educationon his self-care deficits.

(Self-Care Deficit Theory, 2016)Antecedent and ConsequencesAn antecedent is an identifiable occurrencethat precedes an event. An antecedent of self-care is knowledge. As the nurse,we must be able to identify if a patient is knowledgeable about themselves. Doesthe patient know how to take care of themselves, does the patient understandwhy they must perform certain acts in order to promote optimal health. Beingable to identify the occurrences of self-care deficit will hopefully preventthe consequences. (Orem, Renpenning, & Taylor, 2003) A consequence follows or is the result of an event.

So,if an antecedent isn’t identified and corrected we then have a consequence. Aconsequence to a patients’ self-care would be a lapse of care or perhaps medication.This can lead to readmission, worsening of illness and possibly even can be fataldepending on the situation.

(Hartweg, 1995)Empirical ReferentsEmpirical referent is an objective way tomeasure or determine the presence of a nursing concept. The nursing concept weare focusing on is self-care relating to the theory of self-care deficit. Inorder to determine the presence of self-care patients need to be askedquestions and we need to make sure we receive verbal read back of informationgiven. Asking patients questions about how they produce self-care forthemselves will help measure their knowledge of their deficit. (Self-CareDeficit Theory, 2016) For example, if a patient has diabetes and that patient isasked when do you take your blood sugar? When do you administer insulin? What rangeshould you be in? ect. We will have a better understanding of the knowledge thepatient has and the knowledge that is needed.

Another way to determine ifself-care is present is through their understanding. When educating the patientabout their illness or lifestyle changes it is a good method to ask the patientto verbally read back what you have taught them, this will measure theirunderstanding of the material taught. Using these two empirical referents inorder to determine whether or not the patient has good self-care or hasself-care deficit will help you follow through with the nursing theory and findways to help the patient in the areas they struggle. (Hartweg, 1995)  Construct CasesModel Case:The followingreal-life situation is at my clinical practice where an adult man with bipolardisorder characterizes the traits of assuming accountability for self-care. Thepatient in this situation demonstrated the mental competency in assessing hissituation, making decisions and knowing how it will impact him.

Patient with 7-year history of bipolar disorder came indue to signs of increase mania. Patient felt as if he might need an increase inhis medications in order to stabilize his moods. Patient assessed that he wasfeeling moments of grandiose behaviors and was displaying signs of increasedmania. When assessed he made the decisions to bring himself into the emergencyroom in order to be admitted and adjust his medications as well as be watchedfor side effects.

The patient made this decision due to knowing that he neededto have a stable mood in order to function at his job and be able to functionin everyday society. Borderline Case:The followingreal-life situation is at my clinical practice where an adult man whom held aposition as a police officer with major depression had most of his attributesof self-care missing. The patient in this situation demonstrated the mentalcompetency in assessing his situation, but wasn’t able to make decisions orknowing how it will impact him in the long run.Patient with a long history of undiagnosed majordepression came in due to himself writing a suicide note and thinking aboutattempting suicide. When patient assessed that these thoughts were too strongfor him to “ignore” or “sleep off” he turned to his wife to get help. His wife recommendedhe go to the emergency room. Where the patient lacked self-care was hisdecisions, patient would not tell staff any of his feelings. Patient deniedfeeling depressed or anxious and said, “it was a mistake, it will never happenagain.

” He was in denial and that decision to not work on his problems werecausing harm to himself. Bringing us to how he was lacking the next attributeof realizing how it will impact him on the long run. He did not take inconsideration his job will not let him return if he doesn’t receive help, hedid not care that he had a family to go home to and needed to be better inorder to be around for a longtime happily.Contrary Case:The followingreal-life situation is at my clinical practice where a young adult female whom unfourtantlyhad a substance abuse issue and also suffered with major depression had all theattributes of self-care missing. The patient in this situation was unable todemonstrate the mental competency in assessing her situation, wasn’t able to makedecisions or knowing how it will impact her in the long run.Young female admitted 3 times in the last month forintentional overdoses. The last admission the patient was angry when she wasrevived.

Patient has a long history of heroin abuse as well as a long historyof depression. Patient demonstrates no care for her situation. Patient isunable to assess her situation due to the mental competency lacking. Patientcontinues to place herself in situations where she overdoses. Patient unable tomake the decision to go to inpatient rehab instead of not going to heroutpatient rehab and relapsing. Patient has no care for how it will impact herin the long run, unfortunately her self-care deficit may lead to death.

Theoretical Applications of the Concept The concept ofself-care relates to the selected nursing theory of Dorotheas Orem self-caredeficit theory. Self- Care is the act of taking care of oneself, patient whom demonstratethe capability to be able to care about themselves and care of themselves areable to promote optimal health. Orem’s theory was towards professional nursesto be able to identify the patient deficits within self-care and be able to educatethem in order to help them take care of themselves and help find services orprograms to help them if they can’t themselves. The importance of the conceptanalysis relationship to the theory is if the patient doesn’t demonstrateself-care, we then look to Orem as our foundation on how to help the patientwith their deficits. Conclusion The definitionof Self-Care is the practice of taking action to preserve or improve one’s ownhealth. The practice of taking an active role in protecting one’s own health,well-being and happiness. It is also known as the care of self without medicalor other professional consultation.

A concept provides the basicfoundations and the essential framework for any discipline. The concept itselfrepresents an icon of the advanced thought known as the theory, the concept ofthe theory is what the researcher will be concentrating on in order to attestor justify their assumptions. The nursing theory associated with Self-Care isDorotheas Orem’s Theory of Self-Care Deficit. Three attributes of the concept of Self-Care definedby humans are having the mental competences to be able to assess a situation,judge it and make decisions about the factors and how they will contribute totheir health.

(Orem, Renpenning, & Taylor, 2003) The concept analysis ofself-care applies to advanced practice nursing of education because as aneducator I will help promote the act of making sure patients are well educatedin order to promote autonomy for themselves. I will also be able to re-educateand educate nurses and new nurses about being aware of the act of determiningwhat exactly your patient knows and understands about their health and how toact autonomously. Self-reflecting on the new knowledge I have gained fromconducting a concept analysis about self-care I have learned that measuring anddetermining are critical. We can’t determine what attributes they lack or howwe can educate them without finding out where they lack within their knowledge.Being more mindful within my practice now I will try to lean off of just givinginformation and try the approach of asking them questions to see exactly whatthey are aware of about their medications and even their illness.

   

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