A copper atom has a nucleus consisting of 29
protons and 35 neutrons. The surrounding free space is occupied by 29
electrons, making it a suitable conductor in various electrical systems. Copper
is also a good thermal conductor, due to its dense arrangement of electrons.

Polyethylene is essentially chains of hydrogen and carbon. Polyethylene
is formed in several ways: modification of natural gases, such as methane,
ethane and propane is one way polyethylene can be produced. Another method of
producing polyethylene is the catalytic cracking of crude oil into gasoline. Polymerisation
plants allow for the perfect conditions to be reached to produce the compound.
Providing that a sufficient temperature, pressure and catalysis is available, the
double bond of the ethylene monomer opens up and many monomers link up to form
long chains.

Lead Zirconate titante is a ceramic material that shows a
marked piezoelectric effect; piezoelectric effect is when a material has the
ability to produce electrical charge under mechanical stress. This may make the
compound change shape. It is also an inorganic compound, with the chemical
formula PbZrxTi1-xO3

engineering application for metals is the use of reinforced steel beams in
building structures; the high density and tensile strength allows for large
forces to be applied to them without fault in the structures.

An application for polymers could be in the mass production of plastics. In
example, the production of shopping bags would use a huge amount of polymers,
as their flexible and strength means that they can withhold the weight of your

Ceramics are used throughout the motor industry to manufacture carbon ceramic
brakes. High end sports cars tend to be equipped with carbon ceramics, as they
can withstand the massive volumes of friction under harsh brakingCB1 .

One of the main benefits of silicon nitride is that it can
withstand various temperatures, while also retaining its strength. Silicon
nitride also has a good fracture resistance, expanding its uses in artificial
joints. This can also be seen in its outstanding wear resistance, both
impingement and frictional modes. Due to its dense structure, it also has good
thermal shock resistance. This means that it can be utilised in the making of


Timbers structure predominantly consists of cellulose
molecules: cellulose is a carbohydrate, made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
It is formed by multiple chains of glucose forming covalent bonds with one
another, which results in the structure above. The reason that this structure
is so stable is due to the lignin binder, which secures parallel strands of
cellulose together.



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