A copper atom has a nucleus consisting of 29protons and 35 neutrons. The surrounding free space is occupied by 29electrons, making it a suitable conductor in various electrical systems. Copperis also a good thermal conductor, due to its dense arrangement of electrons.Polyethylene is essentially chains of hydrogen and carbon. Polyethyleneis formed in several ways: modification of natural gases, such as methane,ethane and propane is one way polyethylene can be produced. Another method ofproducing polyethylene is the catalytic cracking of crude oil into gasoline. Polymerisationplants allow for the perfect conditions to be reached to produce the compound.Providing that a sufficient temperature, pressure and catalysis is available, thedouble bond of the ethylene monomer opens up and many monomers link up to formlong chains.

Lead Zirconate titante is a ceramic material that shows amarked piezoelectric effect; piezoelectric effect is when a material has theability to produce electrical charge under mechanical stress. This may make thecompound change shape. It is also an inorganic compound, with the chemicalformula PbZrxTi1-xO3(0?x?1). Oneengineering application for metals is the use of reinforced steel beams inbuilding structures; the high density and tensile strength allows for largeforces to be applied to them without fault in the structures.An application for polymers could be in the mass production of plastics. Inexample, the production of shopping bags would use a huge amount of polymers,as their flexible and strength means that they can withhold the weight of yourgroceries.Ceramics are used throughout the motor industry to manufacture carbon ceramicbrakes. High end sports cars tend to be equipped with carbon ceramics, as theycan withstand the massive volumes of friction under harsh brakingCB1 .

One of the main benefits of silicon nitride is that it canwithstand various temperatures, while also retaining its strength. Siliconnitride also has a good fracture resistance, expanding its uses in artificialjoints. This can also be seen in its outstanding wear resistance, bothimpingement and frictional modes. Due to its dense structure, it also has goodthermal shock resistance. This means that it can be utilised in the making ofwindows. CB1Timbers structure predominantly consists of cellulosemolecules: cellulose is a carbohydrate, made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

It is formed by multiple chains of glucose forming covalent bonds with oneanother, which results in the structure above. The reason that this structureis so stable is due to the lignin binder, which secures parallel strands ofcellulose together. excellent

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