A STUDY ON EXPERIENCES OF INCLUSIVE VOLUNTEERING ONINDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITY A dissertationsubmitted In partialfulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of MASTEROF SOCIAL WORK SubmittedBy SWISS REIN S R16MSW65038 Under the Guidance OfPROF.SIMON D’SOUZA Dept. Of SocialWorkSt. Joseph’s College (Autonomous)36, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore-560027FEBRUARY 2018 DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORKST.
JOSEPH’S COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) FEBRUARY2018 UNDERTAKINGFROM THE CANDIDATE This is to certify thatI, Swiss Rein S R, have completed MSW dissertation work on the topic, “A Study onthe Experiences of Inclusive Volunteering on Individuals with Disability” underthe guidance of Prof. Simon D’Souza forthe partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Master Of Social WorkDegree, St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore. This is an original piece of work andI have not submitted it earlier elsewhere.
Place: (Research Scholar) DECLARATION I, Swiss Rein S R,Certify that the work embodied in this Master of Social of Social Work Dissertation is my own bonafide workcarried out by me under the supervision of Prof. Simon D’Souza for a period of9 Months from June 2017 to February 2018 at St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore.
The matter embodied in this Social Work Dissertation has not been submittedelsewhere for award of any other degree/diploma. I declare that I have faithfullyacknowledged, given credit to and referred to the research workers wherevertheir works have been cited in the text and the body of the Dissertation. Signature of theStudent:Date: ST.JOSEPH’S COLLEGEBANGALORE(AUTONOMOUS)DEPARTMENT OF SOCIALWORKMSW Dissertation Clearance Certificatefrom the Research Guide Date:Day:Time: This is to certify that the student Swiss Rein S Rwith the Register No.
16MSW65038 has met me on a regular basis and hassubmitted to me regularly the 1st and 2nd Draft of theDissertation. The Above Mentioned student has met all the requirements withregards to quality and the order of the Dissertation. I certify that this Dissertation is bonafide workcarried out by the student under my Guidance. I hereby request the HOD to issue the FinalClearance Certificate to the student to enable her/him to submit the FinalDissertation in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Social Work. Signature of the Research GuideDate:Plagiarism Policy Compliance Statement I Swiss Rein S R (16MSW65038), hereby declare thatthe Thesis Titled, “A Study On Experiences On Inclusive Volunteering AmongIndividuals With Disability” is my Original Contribution and has not beenplagiarized from any other source or an Individual.
It doesn’t contravene onthe rights of others and doesn’t contain any libelous or any unlawful statementand all references have been duly acknowledged at the appropriate places. Yours sincerely, Signature Of The StudentDate: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would first like to thank God for giving me thiswonderful opportunity for studying in this prestigious College, and Thank myparents and my siblings who was always by my side supporting me in everythingthat I did for this Research and Mainly Thank My Research guide Prof.SimonD’Souza who was a big support in everything I needed for this research, thedoors of Professor was always open for any information or doubts orclarifications, Professor always motivated me in doing the work in the way Iwanted it but guided me in the right direction. Also a Big Thanks To MySecondary Guide Ms.
Vidushi Jayaswal(Social Worker and Counselling Psychologist)Whose Primary research I took it up as my Secondary Research to add up to it.Vidushi Ma’am was helpful in any doubts that I approached her for. I would alsolike to thank Professor Akshay D Mandlik, Head of the Department who wasinvolved in the validation of this research project. I would like to acknowledge the contribution ofProf. Allen Godfrey for guiding me with required statistical tools to representand analyze data. I would like to thank my class mates Philarisa Andrea andLydia Johnson for Helping me in my questionnaire and gathering data collectionfrom the required volunteers. I would also like to thank Mr.Karthick (Volunteerfrom Smileys) who was a biggest support in finding the volunteers at the sametime and help me gather the information about the volunteers and also helpingme with the data analysis.
Last but not least I would like to thank all theVolunteers who participated in my research questionnaire and helped me in get aclear understanding about the experiences of their inclusive volunteering. TABLE OF CONTENT SL NO TOPICS PAGE NO 1. (I) Declaration III (II) Acknowledgement VI (III) List of Tables VIII (IV) List of Figures IX (V) List Of Annexures X 2.
Chapter 1: Introduction 3. Chapter 2: Literature Review 4. Chapter 3: Research Methodology 5. Chapter 4: LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ANNEXURES CHAPTER -1INTRODUCTION IntroductionVolunteeringis an activity which takes place through not-for-profit and community organizationsand projects or the local community and is undertaken to be of benefit to thecommunity and the volunteer, of the volunteer’s own free will and withoutcoercion and for no financial payment. Self-worth, great fun, friendships andjob opportunities can all be part of getting involved with the community.Volunteering may be an outlet for an individual’s natural talents, a road-testfor a new career, or simply a handy way to meet new friends.
Individuals strongbeliefs and values may also inspire them to volunteer. A few goals thatvolunteering can help achieve are : a means of building self-esteem or confidence,a great way to learn or develop skills, a pathway to enhance work experience,gain improved health and be active, a way to meet new people or broaden anindividual’s social set, make a difference in someone’s life, a way of expressinggratitude for help a person may have received in the past or ‘giving back’, anopportunity to support a cause an individual feels strongly about., feelingneeded and valued is satisfying in itself and making a difference within one’sown community.Inclusive Volunteering refers to volunteeringopportunities that are accessible to people regardless of age, culture, abilityor gender. By having young people with disabilities volunteer with anorganization, it can have the opportunity to welcome a group of people whoseskills are underutilized, benefit from their diverse experiences andperspectives, engage young people who are likely to be dedicated volunteers asyoung people with a disability often face barriers to obtaining paid work andprovide an opportunity for young people to contribute to community, createnetworks and develop skills.Federal laws define aperson with a disability as “Any personwho has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or moremajor life activities; has a record of such impairment; or is regarded ashaving such impairment.” In general, a physical or mental impairment includes hearing,mobility and visual impairments, chronic alcoholism, chronic mental illness,AIDS, AIDS Related Complex, and mental retardation that substantially limitsone or more major life activities.
Major life activities include walking,talking, and hearing, seeing, breathing, learning, performing manual tasks, andcaring for oneself.The definition of vision impairmentby the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says a visuallyimpaired person’s eyesight cannot be corrected to a “normal level”. It may besaid that visual impairment is the functional limitation of the eye or eyes orthe vision system. This leads to : Loss of visual acuity and inability of theperson to see objects as clearly as a healthy person, Loss of visual fieldmeaning inability of an individual to see as wide an area as the average personwithout moving the eyes or turning the head, Photophobia – inability to look atlight, Diplopia – double vision, Visual distortion or distortion of images,Visual perceptual difficulties or difficulties of perception, or anycombination of the above features (Mandal, 2013).
A physical disability is any condition that permanentlyprevents normal body movement and/or control. There are many different types ofphysical disabilities. Some of the main ones include:· Muscular dystrophies, Acquiredbrain and spinal injuries, Spina bifida,Cerebral palsy and multipledisabilities.Sustainability of avolunteer is defined as the number of months an individual is a volunteer.Normally a sustainable volunteer is one that volunteers for more than eightmonths to one year.TheoreticalFrameworkAccording to theprivate consumption model of the economic theories of volunteerism thecontributor derives his utility from giving directly from the act of givingitself. Beginning with Olson(1965) and Becker (1974), economists have suggestedthat “people have a taste for giving: probably they receive status or acclaim,or they simply experience a warm glow from having done their bit.
It is theprocess of volunteering and the rewards associated with carrying out thisactivity that motivates the individual to give.A hybrid theory ofvolunteering was developed by Susan M Chambre and Christopher J Einolf whichdescribes three major theoretical perspectives: sociological theories thatstress on the importance of social context, social integration and socialnetworks; pro-social and value orientations which emphasize the impact ofindividuals’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the importance of altruisticbehavior and a sense of social responsibility ; and resource theories that focuson the human capital and economic factors which both allow individuals to volunteerin meaningful ways and make them attractive to organizations. Thesetwo theories will help to relate to the research as they focus on socialinteraction and also talk about the motivation behind volunteering. CHAPTER2REVIEWOF LITERATURE Reviewof LiteratureA research article onInclusive Volunteering named A Winning Recipe for Volunteerism by SuzanneStroud,et al.,2006 talks about howpeople with disability can be used to give back to society rather than be atthe receiving end. Their gifts can be used to give back to society.
The peoplewith and without disability worked in a garden to maintain it and it wasobserved that there was an increase in the level of social skills, abilities tosolve problems and to work together among people with disabilities. Withrespect to the people without disability it was seen that their confidenceincreased in interacting with their peers with disabilities, they also learnedabout the disabilities and looked for strategies to include the people withdisabilities in to their activity. Another research Inclusive Volunteering:Benefits to participants and communitiesby Miller, et.al.
,2002 talked aboutthe benefits of inclusive volunteering on people with and without disabilities.The benefits to people with disability included pride, skill development andgeneralization, empowerment and increase in social interaction and verbal communication.For people without disability the benefits were positive attitude change,increased social interaction and professional development. Teaming up for Inclusive Volunteering: A Case Study of avolunteer program for youth with and without disabilities by Kimberly J Milleret al., 2004 found out that that teaming up for inclusive volunteeringincreased knowledge of volunteerism, increased social interaction andpsychosocial outcomes like increased belief in self and increased sense ofresponsibility.The research article ‘Doingsome positive:Volunteers’ experiences of the well being benefits derived frompractical conservation activities in nature by Liz O’Brian, Mardie Townsend andMatthew Ebden., 2010 talks about motivation, barriers and benefits of formalenvironmental volunteering.
They used both quantitative and qualitative datacollection method and the benefits gained were improving fitness, keepingalert, meeting others and reducing stress levels. Another research article “SocialInclusion through Volunteering: the legacy potential of the 2012 Olympic Games”by Geoff Nicholas and Rita Ralston., 2011 talks about volunteering providing social inclusion benefits beyondemployability by enriching volunteers lives and empowering them to make new choices. This article used thequantitative method of data collection.
Survey was taken by sending postalquestionnaires. CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodologyThe research paradigm used is SocialConstructivism. This is because social constructivism talks about individualsseeking to understand their world which is constructed by their experiences.
This construction takes place by interaction with the society. The researchalso focuses on the experiences of individuals without disability which is whysocial constructivism is an apt paradigm for the research.Statement of the ProblemTo find out experiences of inclusive volunteeringamong individuals without disability. The research also aims to find out thereasons for sustainability of volunteering.
It looks at two disabilities namelyvisual impairment and physical disability.RationaleThe research focuses on experiences of inclusivevolunteering among individuals without disability. This involves theexperiences of individuals volunteering in an inclusive environment. Theresearch focuses on the experiences of the people with disability.
This isbecause the challenges faced by the people with disability in carrying out anyactivity are greater than the challenges faced by the people without disability.The disability taken into consideration is visual impairment and physicaldisability. This is because each of the disabilities have their own problemsand it is not possible to tap into all the disabilities due to time restraint.There will be thw clusters of sample in my research because the research alsofocuses on finding out the reasons of sustainability in volunteering. Thereforethere are two aspects to my research.Significance of the StudyThe research will add to the knowledge pool. Itwill also have an implication in the counselling field.
If inclusivevolunteering has a positive effect on the people with disability then it canlead to an added area where the people can contribute. It also enhances theself esteem of people with disability. It can be suggested as a means ofengaging among people with disability. It can also prove as a good motivationalfactor.Objectives of the Current StudyThe major objective of the current study is tofind out the reasons for volunteering and to find out how the people withdisability feel about volunteering.The specific objective of the current study is tofind out the experience of first time volunteers; how is that experiencedifferent from the experience of the sustained volunteers; motivation forvolunteering and motivation for being a sustained volunteer.
Data Collection and processingParticipantsThe participants for the research would be contactedthrough two Non Governmental Organizations named Enable India and Smileys. Theparticipants for the research will be divided into two clusters. Each of thetwo clusters will be further divided into two consisting of individuals withdisability.
Only Visually Impaired and Physical Disability will be taken forthe research. The first cluster would consist of individuals who aresustainable volunteers in the sector of Inclusive Volunteering. This clusterwill consist of 4 individuals with disability. The second cluster will look atindividuals who are volunteering for the first time in an inclusivevolunteering setup.
This cluster will also consist of 4 individuals withdisability.In total the sample size will be 8 individuals withdisability; 4 of whom being Visually Impaired and the other 4 PhysicallyDisabled. The method of sampling used will be Convenient sampling. This isbecause Enable India and Smileys will be contacted for participants of theresearch.
The age of the participants will range from 21 – 30 years. Inclusion criteria· Individuals withVisual Impairment and Physical Disability.· Individuals withDisability who have been sustainable volunteers. The sustainability of thevolunteer is measured with respect to their association with inclusivevolunteering for a period of eight months to one year.· Volunteershaving their first experience in inclusive volunteering. This would includevolunteers with disability.· Only Englishspeaking participants shall be includedExclusioncriteria· Volunteers whohave been volunteering for a period lessthan eight months to one year· Individualsassociated with volunteering with other sectors apart from inclusivevolunteering.
Data CollectionThe method used for data collection will be semistructured interview. This interview will consist of questions focusing on theexperiences of inclusive volunteering and the reasons for sustainability. Field notes will also be taken during theinterview and if the client gives the consent then audio recording of theinterview will also be used as a method of data collection. Observations willalso be made while conducting the interview. The interview shall be conductedimmediately after the participant volunteers for an event. The interview shalllast for a time period of 45 minutes to 1 hour.
There can be follow upinterviews to ensure saturation of information obtained from each participant.Before conducting the interview the participant will be asked to read and signan informed consent form which will ensure that whatever information the clientdiscloses will not be used anywhere except in the research. Semi structured interview is used as a method ofdata collection because the study focuses on the experiences of inclusivevolunteering and the reasons for sustainability. Through semi structuredinterview the various reasons for sustainability can be derived and the sinceexperiences of each individual is subjective a window will be given to theparticipant to speak about their experience in the way they feel. Through semistructured interview the content for the reasons of volunteering will emergewhich will then be analyzed.
The interview will consist of questions that willbring out the experience of sustainable volunteers, first time volunteers, thereasons of sustainability and their reason for choosing inclusive volunteering.ProcessThe study will be conducted on the days of eventsorganized by Enable India and Smileys. The study will be conducted over aperiod of four months from August, 2015 to December, 2015. After each event aninterview will be taken to understand the impact of the event as well as theirexperience in volunteering in an inclusive environment. Interview of thevolunteers for the event will be taken.
About 45 minutes will be spent for eachinterview. A brief feedback of the event will be taken from all the volunteerspresent and after that an interview of the volunteers concerned will be taken.There will also be a brief talk with the organizers of the event and theauthorities on their perspective of the event as well as on inclusivevolunteering and reasons for sustainability of the volunteers.