A second method of producingsupramaximal speed running has been the use of downhill sprinting.
A study ofKunz and Kaufman (1981) analyzed maximalsprinting on a 3% decline that led to an increase in horizontal velocity of0.5m/s from level maximal sprinting. This study did not find any increase instride rate, only in stride length, so the increased velocity is due to thisfactor alone, therefore having minimal effect upon the neural system unlike theother forms of supramaximal sprinting training. These researches felt that agreater decline (>3%) would lead to an even longer stride length, resultingin increased breaking forces and loss of sprinting technique. High Speed Treadmill Sprinting A third method of training atsupramaximal speeds is using a high speed treadmill. A study by Wood (1985)analyzed the biomechanics of using such a device and found that the overspeedtraining effect was primarily focused on the hamstring muscle group. Significantincreases in peak hip extensor and knee flexor torques were recordedimmediately following treadmill training.
Speed can also be improved throughstrength training as more muscle mass can produce more force increasing speed Balance and proprioception Balance is being able to maintain the correctdistribution of mass to keep upright /stable Proprioception is being able to identify therelative position of one’s own body parts and identifying during movement thestrength and effort being employed Balance is important during everyday life butmore importantly it is required when participating in physical activity.Balance is important due to the fact that this could either increase otherattributes or limit depending on how much it has been trained.Relationship between balance and agility-balance plays a huge part in having good agility as being able to retain centreof mass can ensure that the athletes can change direction efficiently andprevent injury Dynamic balance is very important infootball. Players will require this balance due to the fact that they’readjusting body position constantly when looking for scoring opportunities inthe penalty box or trying to mark an opponent closely. Good balance will helpplayers to keep their shots on target, and to reach and play difficult volleystrikes with accuracy – it will also help to maintain possession when adefender tries to push you of the ball. Methods of training There are many methods of training forbalance and proprioception. Strength training can help balance such as freeweight training as this can help improve stability .
Some methods of training :· Press ups · Lunges· Side plank · Balance board· One leg balance · Medicine ball exercises Balance training programs designed to enhance performance might startwith exercises on a stable surface and bipedal stance and progress to unipedalstance and unstable surfaces (foam mat, tilt board, wobble board, inflatedrubber disc) with eyes open, eyes shut and may then incorporate movements:tilting, rotating, squatting, hopping, jumping, throwing and catching a ball orresistance exercises while balancing.42 There have been a number ofinvestigations 11 into the influence of balance training on athletic performance measures(Table V). These prospective studies have ranged from 2 to 10 weeks and mostly involvedphysically active, non-elite subjects. It has been found that the addition of a balancetraining component to the activities of recreational active subjects or physical educationstudents has resulted in improvements in vertical jump12,46, agility46, shuttle run18 and downhill-slalomskiing.16 It is unclear what portion of the improvements is due to the actualbalance training stimulus as opposed to just the increased overall volume of physical conditioningbrought about by the inclusion of balance training. It has been proposed that improvementwith balance could decrease the proportions of muscles allocated to stabilization and allowthem to contribute more to the motive force.
12 There are of course activities that wouldbenefit directly from enhanced balance; down-hill slalom skiing involves unpredictablesurfaces in addition to the ankle-foot being fixed in the ski boot and unable to make major posturaladjustments.16 The evidence supports the notion that balance training can be a worthwhileadjunct to the usual training of non-elite athletes but not in place of other conditioningsuch as resistance training. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared to resistancetraining, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for jumpheight and sprint time. Power and reaction time power is the amount of force that can beexerted in a given space of time reaction time is the speed which a human canrespond to a stimulus the function of power is to be able to exertthe required force to complete a task and is improved through strength trainingand also improving technique. power is very important in football this could bekicking the ball throwing the ball or even trying to win a header reaction time is not as important in footballbut is very beneficial to goal keepers as they have to make quick and sharpdecisions based on the opposition attacking this could be them reaction to theopposition attacking and making sure they’re in the correct position or divinglast minute to save a shot.
Methods of training Training for power goes hand in hand with thestrength training and is often trained using free weights and plyometrics,plyometrics are good for explosive power as it requires the athlete to exertenough force in a short period of time . Training for reaction time is alt differentthan most training. one way to train reaction time is: