A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that contains a core of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) and which is surrounded by a proteins. Viruses cause diseases by infecting a host cell and seizes the host cells synthetic capabilities to produce more viruses. Viruses use either the lytic or lysogenic cycle to replicate itself as a virus is non-living.
The adenovirus is a large virus, that is made up of a protein capsid surrounding its DNA genome and core proteins. This virus is classified as a icosahedral, in which the faces are composed of 250 hexons, and 12 pentons sit on the vertices (Goodsell, 2010). The adenovirus is a member of the family adenoviridae. The adenoviridae was founded in 1950 and consists of 6 genera and 47 species that can cause a plethora of disease. The diseases caused by adenoviridae consists of sore throats and fevers in humans, hepatitis in dogs, and several other diseases in different animals (Britannica Staff, 2017). Adenovirus is a virus that is airborne, it can be spread like the common cold. This can spread from person to person via coughing or sneezing. People are infected by these diseases by touching something that has been infected and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth.
For example, someone could have transferred the virus on the doorknob by coughing or sneezing in their hands and not washing their hands afterward. In the virus adenovirus, the capsid has a job in which it finds a cell and delivers the viral genome inside (Goodsell, 2010). In order for the virus to attack cells, the long fibers bind to receptors on the surface of the cell. CAR, which is also called Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor is the most common receptor in adenovirus. CAR is a protein in which many do not know the function that is founded on most of types of cells. After the virus has attached to the surface of the cell, the virus is then adhered to vesicles in which goes through the process of endocytosis. After that, the penton attaches to integrins, which break through the vesicles membrane and releases the viral DNA into the cells.
Then it enters the nucleus and creates thousands of new viruses (Goodsell, 2010). This is the process in which the adenovirus uses to attack other cells and replicate itself. Adenovirus can affect many different systems in the body. The virus infect the lining of the respiratory tract, eyes, intestines, and urinary tract (Lerner, 2007). Adenovirus has around 100 types that have been identified to infect mammals, and 47 adenovirus types that have been classified to infect humans (Doerfler, 1996).
But as the years have gone by, many scientists have found many more different classifications of this virus. Adenovirus 1,2,3, 5, and 6 are known to cause for most of the infections that children contract. But sometimes, these types can cause more serious respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia. Adenovirus type 3 and 7 can also cause pharyngoconjunctival fever, which the symptoms appear suddenly and disappear in less a week (Haggerty, 2015).
The symptoms include conjunctivitis, fever, sore throat, and runny nose (Haggerty, 2015). Even though children are more susceptible to adenovirus, adults are also affected by this virus. In adults, the most common adenovirus infection is acute respiratory disease (Haggerty, 2015). Acute Respiratory Disease (ARD) is known to have flu like symptoms, such as fever, sore throat, runny nose, a cough, and chills (Haggerty, 2015). Also in adults there is a disease called Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), which are caused by the adenovirus 8, 19, and 37 (Haggerty, 2015).
Those who are immunocompromised may experience a greater chance of severe side effects, but those who are not immunocompromised suffer from less side effects as there body is able to fight off the virus better (Haggerty, 2015). Even though the adenovirus tends to present bacterial like infections, they are not able to be treated by antibiotics. Antibiotics that are given for bacterial infections do not work against viruses, so in order to treat these virus, the key is to keep yourself comfortable. Most of the time you are given some over the counter medications to help relieve the symptoms, but other than that, doctors recommend you to let it run its course and try and relieve your symptoms by bed rest.
There are no antiviral drugs that have been affected against this virus, so your main way to help reduce your symptoms is to take acetaminophens. Byt doctors advise you to not give children aspirin as it may be a risk for Reye’s Syndrome (Haggerty, 2015). The key to most viruses is to try and relieve your symptoms and make yourself as comfortable as you can. Even though there is no real “treatment”, the are remedies that help reduce everything. Most adenoviruses lead to a good prognosis, as their are rarely any cause of death from this virus, so many people recover fully from this virus.Lastly, because adenovirus is a airborne virus, it is easy to contract these viruses because many people are easily spreading this virus around.
In order to prevent from contracting this virus, practicing good personal hygiene can help reduce your risk in contracting this disease. Proper handwashing and making sure to cover your mouth when coughing and sneezing can help protect those who are unable to fight viruses as well as others. It is also important to make sure you do not rub your eyes after touching something that is infected, as you are at risk for EKC and conjunctivitis.
Also, isolating yourself until all the symptoms are no longer present can help prevent the spread of adenovirus.