(Abbas et al 2002) explored the taxonomy and distribution of butterflies of the Skardu andthey reported sixteen species of butterflies from 6 distinct areas of skardu during survey. These species belong tofive different families and fourteen genera and furthermore each familycontained different genera that were as family Paplionidae indicated by onlyone genus as parnassinus,family Pieridae followed by 3 genera,family Lycaenidaereferred to 6 genera,family Nymphalidae denoted by 2 genera and familySatyridae also denoted by 2 genera.(Khan et al 2007) studied biodiversity of butterflies from Districts Kotli, Mirpur andBhimber of Azad Kashmir, the specimens were collected from different areas ofeach districts and revealed total fifty five species. Out of these, 16 speciesfrom Kolti, 20 species from Mirpur and 19 species from Bhimber that belong to 7families and 30 genera.
While using Shannon’s Simpson’s, Margalef,s andNalmura.s indexes ,they also analyzed the values of butterflies diversity from Maximum to minimum from each districts.Furthermore this study does not describe about the any threaten species nor newspecies existence.(Naz et al 2010) explored the Genus Junonia ,( Nymphalidae) of Pakistan, in which onlyone new specie name as Junonia atlites have been documented from Pakistanthat was a new record of them. Now approximately 6 species of genus junoniahave been indentified from Pakistan that belongs to family Nymphalidae.(Perveen et al 2012) worked on characterization of butterflies(Lepidoptera) of Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and they revealedtotal 21 species that belong to 3families and 6 subfamilies.
The 3 three families were as family Nymphalidae indicatedby 33% of species,family Papiliondae were included 10% species while familypieridae were included 57%species.Moreover each family contained differentsubfamilies such as family Nymphalidae referred to Nymphalinae and Satyrinae,Family Papiliondae represented by papilionae while family Pieridae described bythree subfamilies Pierinae,Coliaclinae and Caliadinae as well as they alsodetermined the wings size of collected specimens that were as 25mm to 100mm.(Preveen and Fazal 2013) explored biology and distribution of butterfly fauna ofHazara university,Mensehra and described only 10 species of butterflies fromthree different areas that belong to 3 families and 8 genera.The followingareas were as Residential area that indicated most abound rate diversity offamily pieridae including 5 species. Whilemain campus area referred to 3 species of family Nymphalidae and Administrationarea showed by only two species that belong to family Papilionidae.Additionally they also measured Body and wings size of some species ranging from1.
5cm to 2.5cm and 3.7cm to 7.5cm. (Mal et al 2014) worked on checklist of butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera, Rhopalcerol) ofsindh, during survey they had been recorded total 67 species of 6 families. out of which 19 species belong to family Lycaenidae , 18 species offamily pieridae, 11 species of family Nymphalidae, 11 species of familyHesperiidae, 5 species of family Danaidae and only 3 species of familypapilionodae were documented. (Mal et al 2014) studied diversity of pierid butterflies, Lepidoptera pieridae from Jamshorodistrict of Sindh and recorded first time 10 species of pierid butterflies thatbelong to 4 genera follow as Anapheis, Calopsila, colitis, Eurema and twosubfamilies were as pierinae and Coliadinae included. (Khan et al 2014) analyzed the biodiversity of butterflies from poonch division of AzadKashmir and total 32 species of butterflies have been reported from 28 distinctareas of three districts of Poonch that belong to 3 different families ,5subfamlies and 18 generas.
they also calculated the diversity values in eacharea of districts through using Maria,s method showed the highest value fromthe Sudhan Gali and Mongbajri of Bagh,Khaigalah of Poonch, and Azad Pattan of Sudhnoti while lowest value from Nammanpura that locate in Bagh ,Topa andPaniola of Poonch and Palandaricity of Sudhnoti.Their study lead thatthere may be changing in biodiversity of butterflies in coming future.Faiz et al (2015) explored community structure and diversity of butterflies from Tolopir NationalPark Azad Jamu Kashmir and they had been indentified about 20 species that belong to Nymphalidae and Pieridaefamilies .They had also been analyzed the values of diverse butterfliesdiversity using some methods which were follow as Simpson index shown be 0.
009range,Shannon index 3.05,Berger Perker index represented by 0.006,Margalef,sindex shown by 3.37, Menhinick index 0.89 while Buzas and Gibson’s index wereincluded 0.
96 range.(Afshan et al 2015) described the butterfly fauna of Tehsil and District Chitral KhybarPakhtunkhwa in wchich 15 speccies ofbutterflies have been reported that belong to 4 families, 5 subfamiliesincluding Nymphalina, pierinae,coliadinae,coliaclinae and paplioninae and 11genera.The families were as Nymphalidae that referred to most abound rate of 8species, pieridae followed by 5 specieswhile lycaenidae and paplionidaerepresented by lowest abundant of onespecies each.(Khan et al 2016) explored the butterflies’ species and habitat of Tehsil Choa SaigdanShah and 500 specimens collected from different 20 areas during the year of2014. Out of these specimens, only 31 species had been indentified thatreferred to 4 families and 20 genera. The families were follow as familypieridae were included 11 species, family Nymphalidae indicated by 10 species ,family Lycaenidae represented by 3 species while family Paplionidae werefollowed by 7 species but out of these species some were common at that study areas.
(Batool et al 2016)studied diversity and distribution of butterflies in different cities ofPakistan and reported that most abundant biodiversity of butterflies are foundin Bhawalpur including 70 species o f 19 different families.(Iqbal et al 2016) studied butterfly diversity inDistrict Gujrat,Punjab during the study , 232 butterfly specimens werecollected from different habitat of Gujrat . Out of these specimens, only 12 species had been recognized that belongto different 3 families, 4 subfamilies and 8 genera. The families were asPieridae that were comprised of 6 species, Nymphalidae referred to 4 specieswhile Danaidae followed by 2 species only. Furthermore their study alsodescribe the family wise distribution percentage of butterflies that were as78% represented by family Pieridae, 14% by family Dananidae and 8% denoted byfamily Nymphalidae as well as this study also suggest that population of somebutterflies species may be maximum or minimum related to seasons at DistrictGujrat but some have maximum throughout seasons such as pieris canidia.(Khan et al 2016 ) worked on diversity and distribution of butterflies of district DirLower Khyber pakhtoonkhwa and reported 24 species that belong to 20 genera and 7 families were as Papilionidae, Pieridae, Danidae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae Lycaenidae and lybethedae.
while of these 12 species that belong to familyNymphalidae described 50% abound rate as compared to other families.(Ullah et al 2017) studied the faunal diversity of butterflies in Tehsil Shabqabar DistrictCharsadda Khyyber Pakhtunkhwa in which 250 specimens were collected fromdifferent localities of Tehsil shabqabar during the year of 2015 to 2016.out ofthese specimens; they reported 13 species that belong to 3 families and 10genera. The families were as Nymphalidae, pieridae and paplionidae as well asindicated abound rate of individuals each families such as most were represented by family Nymhalidae.(Haroon and Perveen 2017) Worked on characteristics of family Nymphalidae(lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tagi Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and reported 26 species offamily Nymphalidae.