Abstract In thisresearch proposal I will be studying whether or not there is something uniqueabout student-athletes participation that in relation accounts for the differencesbetween boys and girls as their sexual behavior in order to find out ifstudent-athletes tend to be more susceptible to dating and engaging in sexualencounters within the sports community. The main data I use will be retrievedby peer-reviewed scholarly sources with additional data coming from scholarlybooks and journal entries. Through the outlook of Sociology and Psychology Iwill examine the student-athletes and their sexual behaviors and tendencies.

Iwill then dig deeper into the hormones that encourage the student-athlete toincrease their sexual drive. Adolescence can be considered as the transitionalstage from which there is the shift between childhoods to adulthood. Theobjective of this research proposal is to study the last two stages ofadolescence, which are the middle stage and late stage. A questionnaire will beconducted of the middle and late stages of adolescent male and females incompetitive sport and their sexual behaviors.

I am confident that the resultsthat are found will be of no shock, because student-athletes can be held to adifferent standard of responsibilities. The title of a “student-athlete” bearsa lot of weight on a person and how they should behave, and also affects howthey are viewed by peers, teammates, teachers and even their family.Sociologists and Psychologists have found student-athletes to be good leaders,capable of dealing with responsibility and in some cases fall to being aburnout athlete.

A “burnout athlete” is defined as someone who experiences “physicalor emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, and reduced athleticaccomplishment”. This research is new and groundbreaking because littleresearch has been done on the topic of the effects that sports would have on astudent and their sexual behaviors.  The the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The thethe the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the  INTRODUCTION the the the the the the The the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the The the the ?The purpose of this research is to find out if there is somethingunique that relates student-athletes participation and that in turn can accountfor the different effects on boys and girls and their sexual behavior. Theobjective of this research proposal is to study the last two stages ofadolescence, which are the middle stage and late stage, with these ages rangingfrom 14-19 years old. A questionnaire will be conducted of the middle and latestages of adolescent male and females in competitive sport and their sexualbehaviors; the questionnaire will be conducted in Fresno, CA at Clovis EastHigh School.

Next I will question the student-athletes and theirself-confidence as well as how far they have experienced sexually. I willensure all participating in the questionnaire are aware that their answers willremain completely anonymous to strive for the most accurate results possible.By them knowing they are safe to be honest on the questionnaire, they willreport truthfully allowing me to get the most accurate data, thus resulting inthe most accurate conclusion. This research is necessary in order to bringabout new research, which will also show the impact of athletic participation,and how it can affect both boys and girls in their sexual tendencies andactivities.

 the the the the the the The the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The thethe the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the the the the thethe the the the the the the theLITERATURE REVIEW  Sociological the the the the the the The the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the The the the Sociologyis defined as the scientific study of society. Traditionally socialization is aprocess in which someone learns the cultural and social norms, behaviors,skills and values (Abadi, E. 2017). Participating in athletics is a way ofsocial acceptance and can boost your social status. Growing up, especially inhigh school, it is thought that if you play sports and more so if you aresuccessful in sports, you are labeled as “cool” or “popular”.

Going along withthis, when these kids are labeled these names, they feel the need to live up tothem and engage in activities believed to also be “cool”. One of the mostcommon being sexual activity, not necessarily meaning intercourse but otherforms as well. “Athletic participation is associated with the sexual scripts oflife, enhancing social status” (Miller, K. 1999).

After reading this journalentry I realized I would need to view it through the sociological viewpoint anddiscipline. Traditionally when sports in high schools are talked about, youtypically hear about jocks, the sexual bargaining tied with student athletes,and the peer pressure from their non-athlete peers. In this journal entryMiller explains that, “females playing sports give them additional socialstatus and personal resources, which then attract sexual bargaining, as for theboys, sports strengthen their sexual masculinity and also add to their socialstatus,” (Miller, K.

1999). A sample recorded based off the race, ethnicity,age, and mother’s education of a nationally represented sample of 8,979 highschool student-athletes was conducted. Here is what was found. First, girls insports were found to have less sexual experience, fewer sex partners, and alater age of their first intercourse, a higher rate of contraceptive use, and alower rate of pregnancies (Farrell, M. 1999). While boys in sports had higherrate of sexual experience, higher number of sex partners, younger age of firstintercourse, however had the same rate of contraceptive use (Farrell, M. 1999).A secondary analysis was done in Western New York of about 699 families andtheir adolescents, ages from 13-16 years old.

The data from the interview andsurvey were to provide athletic participation, frequency of sexual relationsduring the past year, and risk of pregnancy (Sabo, D. F. 1999). The results ofthe study were, that with the lower income homes they had a higher rate ofsexual activity as well as higher pregnancy rates. In homes where families hadmore unity there was lower rates of sexual activity in both boys and girls.However what I found odd about this study was that in analyzing the maleadolescent, athletic participation was not connected with sexual behavior andpregnancy.

This was shocking to me for the fact that it seemed to play a rolein the lives of female adolescent so it would make sense that if affect themales too. But seemingly, that is not the case.  The the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the the thethe The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the Psychological the the the the the the The the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the The the the ?Psychologyis defined as the scientific study of behavior and mind.

The mind is the mostpowerful part of our bodies, making decisions, giving us confidence and a highself-esteem. Our mind is an amazon part of our body that can drastically alterus. Adolescence is a time of experiment and finding ones true self. In fact,about 20% of adolescents have serious adjustment issues during the adolescent period(Bowker, A. 2003). Individuals with low self-esteem often feel inadequate andincompetent, almost always expecting to fail.

They view themselves as less thanothers and feel as if they cannot amount to the same standards as theirstudents. They feel exiled from their peers and are constantly searching for an”in” to the cool crowd. Student-athletes often have a higher global self-esteemin more advanced levels of competitiveness as well as body-esteem (Gadbois, S.2003).

Student-athletes can occasionally be perceived as “arrogant” due totheir high self-esteem levels. They often walk with their heads higher becausethey have their sports and their stats to prove they are successful insomething that matters. Higher levels of self-esteem also are involved withbetter leadership skills. Leadership skills are important because theadolescents of today will be the government and business decision makers of theworld (Griffin, R. S. 1998). Being a leader can also help develop other skillsnot necessarily only valuable in the sports world, another reason beinginvolved in sports is so beneficial.

Involvement in sports brings forth theleadership qualities, which are often sought after by others in role modelssuch as their coaches and other players. This is a great way for thestudent-athletes to see what it means to be a good role model and leader inlife. In a study, Dobosz examined the relationship between adolescents’ andtheir participation in athletics as well as their leadership skills in 60students from a suburban high school, the results were that student-athletesdemonstrated significantly greater leadership skills than did non-athletes(Dobosz, R.

P., & Beaty, L. A. 1999). Often time’s non-athletes are never putin a situation where they have to use their leadership’s skills, so when amoment finally arises they often feel confused and lost because they are notsure what being a leader truly even means.

Mentally, from personal experience,being a student-athlete can give you that ‘big-headed’ feeling. You can feel asif you’re superior to others because you are making a bigger name for yourselfby participating and ultimately being successful in whatever sport you play.Participation in high school sports has many benefits when it comes toself-esteem and the ability to be called popular. However, how you handle thesebenefits reveals your true colors. There are those who use their peer givenauthority for good and to help others, and those who use it instead to belittlethose they believe to “inferior” to them. With these studies of self-confidenceand self-esteem in student-athletes it is important to remember the study beingconducted which are the effects of student-athletes and their sexual behaviors.

Self-esteem and high confidence brings in sexual bargaining. Boys like to see agirl that is confident. Confidence gives off a “sexy” demeanor to many men.When girls walk with their head high and they are seemingly confident or proudof themselves they are often viewed as more attractive and receive moreattention for males.  Thethe the the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the The the the Methodsthe the the the the the The the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the The the the ?In theinitial survey I will have each student-athlete at Clovis East High Schoolanswer personal questions about their age, race, grade, gender, mother’seducation, the kind of grades they are receiving, and how far they think theywill go in school.

Following this first questionnaire I will then ask a seriesof questions that have to do with which involve imagining they thestudent-athlete is with someone they liked a lot and if they could, probablycould, probably could not, or could not do what the statement is asking. Thethird of the questionnaire is called the ‘is it ok?’ part of the survey, withthese questions being forms of peer pressure from other student-athletes.Lastly the questionnaire will question the friends of the student-athletes andwhat they know their friends have done sexually. Following the hand-writtenquestionnaire I will conduct an interview with the student-athletes that I wantto personally bring in for the face-to-face interviews. I will simply ask thema series of questions that are similar to the questionnaire to identify ifthere is a change of heart in the answers given. Often times people can confesseasier on a piece of paper knowing that they will remain anonymous rather thanface-to-face with someone. I believe this could be fear of judgment, or evenpossibly fear of punishment for their answers.   The the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the the thethe The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the Integration the the the the the the The the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the The the the Whenlooking at this research through an interdisciplinary outlook I found aconnection between sociology and psychology in a student-athlete.

Sports are away for youth to stay active, meet new people and build confidence. Manyparents like to start their children in as many sports as possible at a youngage in hopes that they will develop a passion for a certain sport and continueto play. As you grow up sports become more serious, deciding whether you wantto play in high school and work hard enough to get a scholarship to a collegeto continue to play.

With this being said the work rate of the student-athletein high school must be at an elite level for the athlete to perform well andstudent to not only pass their classes by high school requirements but alsoensure they are meeting the requirements of any colleges they could potentiallybe interested in. Student-athletes at any level have a tough scheduleincluding, class, practices, traveling, games, and extra curricular activitiesmeaning that the social life of an athlete is small to non-existent. Most of thetime athletes solely form friendships and connections with other athletesbecause they can understand the busy schedules and the difficulty to make realplans. Coleman argued that peer values of the adolescent acceptance plays adangerous role in the process of the development of student-athletes and theirsocialization (Coleman, 1961).

I remember my days as a student-athlete in highschool, it came with publicity throughout the school because you were eitherdressed for game day or team posters were posted throughout the school, yet Ihardly remember going out. My days were filled with homework and trainings. Alot of the times I found my fellow teammates being burnt out. A burn out insports is considered a chronic, excessive stress among young athletes (Coakley,J. 1992). In addition staying focused was a challenge, by this I mean the peerpressure of going out and doing all the things a high school upper classmanshould do. As I started to get older and went into high school playing sports Irealized that being called a student-athlete could have its social perks.

Ithen quickly found out about the peer pressure that could come with sports(Santor, D. 2000). Peer pressure is a bigger risk factor in the need to bepopular (Messervey, D. 2000). Peer pressure is your surrounding friends orpeers, attempting to get you to do something you may be hesitant about bymocking you, degrading you, or worse case scenario, threatening you.

I got agood taste of the stereotypical high school student-athlete and the participationthat accounts for the different effects on boys and girls sexual behavior.  The the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the the thethe The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the Expected Results The the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the The the the the the the the the the ?I predict that with the implications of race, age, ethnicity,mother’s education, and sports participation I will come to find that femaleathletes are less sexually active and less likely to have enough time for asocial life causing them to be at a higher rate of athletic burnout than boys.I also predict that in boys their sexual activity will be higher than that of thefemales and more likely to have a bigger social circle. In another sense Ipredict that the student-athletes will not be completely honest with theiranswering during face-to-face interview. Therefore, I will take their writtenanswers in to much more consideration to achieve the most accurate findings. Inthe interview I expect to be able to see the reaction of the student-athlete intheir answers. I would assume that once I ask certain questions that I will beable to read how comfortable or uncomfortable that student is when it comes toanswering. I also believe I will be able to make a strong guess about howhonest each student was being with me based on their body language, depth ofanswer, and reaction time to the question.

I am hoping that I can get thestudents to be more open with me by ensuring they know what we discuss isconfidential and that there will be no judgments placed so that theirinterviews can be more heavily factored into my end result because the moredata, the stronger the experiment. The the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the The the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the the theThe the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the the the the the the the the The the the the the the the the the the the the thethe the

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