Abstract be more susceptible to dating and engaging

Abstract

 

In this
research proposal I will be studying whether or not there is something unique
about student-athletes participation that in relation accounts for the differences
between boys and girls as their sexual behavior in order to find out if
student-athletes tend to be more susceptible to dating and engaging in sexual
encounters within the sports community. The main data I use will be retrieved
by peer-reviewed scholarly sources with additional data coming from scholarly
books and journal entries. Through the outlook of Sociology and Psychology I
will examine the student-athletes and their sexual behaviors and tendencies. I
will then dig deeper into the hormones that encourage the student-athlete to
increase their sexual drive. Adolescence can be considered as the transitional
stage from which there is the shift between childhoods to adulthood. The
objective of this research proposal is to study the last two stages of
adolescence, which are the middle stage and late stage. A questionnaire will be
conducted of the middle and late stages of adolescent male and females in
competitive sport and their sexual behaviors. I am confident that the results
that are found will be of no shock, because student-athletes can be held to a
different standard of responsibilities. The title of a “student-athlete” bears
a lot of weight on a person and how they should behave, and also affects how
they are viewed by peers, teammates, teachers and even their family.

Sociologists and Psychologists have found student-athletes to be good leaders,
capable of dealing with responsibility and in some cases fall to being a
burnout athlete. A “burnout athlete” is defined as someone who experiences “physical
or emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, and reduced athletic
accomplishment”. This research is new and groundbreaking because little
research has been done on the topic of the effects that sports would have on a
student and their sexual behaviors.  The the the the the the the the the the the the
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INTRODUCTION

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?The purpose of this research is to find out if there is something
unique that relates student-athletes participation and that in turn can account
for the different effects on boys and girls and their sexual behavior. The
objective of this research proposal is to study the last two stages of
adolescence, which are the middle stage and late stage, with these ages ranging
from 14-19 years old. A questionnaire will be conducted of the middle and late
stages of adolescent male and females in competitive sport and their sexual
behaviors; the questionnaire will be conducted in Fresno, CA at Clovis East
High School. Next I will question the student-athletes and their
self-confidence as well as how far they have experienced sexually. I will
ensure all participating in the questionnaire are aware that their answers will
remain completely anonymous to strive for the most accurate results possible.

By them knowing they are safe to be honest on the questionnaire, they will
report truthfully allowing me to get the most accurate data, thus resulting in
the most accurate conclusion. This research is necessary in order to bring
about new research, which will also show the impact of athletic participation,
and how it can affect both boys and girls in their sexual tendencies and
activities. 

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LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Sociological

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Sociology
is defined as the scientific study of society. Traditionally socialization is a
process in which someone learns the cultural and social norms, behaviors,
skills and values (Abadi, E. 2017). Participating in athletics is a way of
social acceptance and can boost your social status. Growing up, especially in
high school, it is thought that if you play sports and more so if you are
successful in sports, you are labeled as “cool” or “popular”. Going along with
this, when these kids are labeled these names, they feel the need to live up to
them and engage in activities believed to also be “cool”. One of the most
common being sexual activity, not necessarily meaning intercourse but other
forms as well. “Athletic participation is associated with the sexual scripts of
life, enhancing social status” (Miller, K. 1999). After reading this journal
entry I realized I would need to view it through the sociological viewpoint and
discipline. Traditionally when sports in high schools are talked about, you
typically hear about jocks, the sexual bargaining tied with student athletes,
and the peer pressure from their non-athlete peers. In this journal entry
Miller explains that, “females playing sports give them additional social
status and personal resources, which then attract sexual bargaining, as for the
boys, sports strengthen their sexual masculinity and also add to their social
status,” (Miller, K. 1999). A sample recorded based off the race, ethnicity,
age, and mother’s education of a nationally represented sample of 8,979 high
school student-athletes was conducted. Here is what was found. First, girls in
sports were found to have less sexual experience, fewer sex partners, and a
later age of their first intercourse, a higher rate of contraceptive use, and a
lower rate of pregnancies (Farrell, M. 1999). While boys in sports had higher
rate of sexual experience, higher number of sex partners, younger age of first
intercourse, however had the same rate of contraceptive use (Farrell, M. 1999).

A secondary analysis was done in Western New York of about 699 families and
their adolescents, ages from 13-16 years old. The data from the interview and
survey were to provide athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations
during the past year, and risk of pregnancy (Sabo, D. F. 1999). The results of
the study were, that with the lower income homes they had a higher rate of
sexual activity as well as higher pregnancy rates. In homes where families had
more unity there was lower rates of sexual activity in both boys and girls.

However what I found odd about this study was that in analyzing the male
adolescent, athletic participation was not connected with sexual behavior and
pregnancy. This was shocking to me for the fact that it seemed to play a role
in the lives of female adolescent so it would make sense that if affect the
males too. But seemingly, that is not the case.  The the the the the the the the the
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Psychological

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?Psychology
is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mind. The mind is the most
powerful part of our bodies, making decisions, giving us confidence and a high
self-esteem. Our mind is an amazon part of our body that can drastically alter
us. Adolescence is a time of experiment and finding ones true self. In fact,
about 20% of adolescents have serious adjustment issues during the adolescent period
(Bowker, A. 2003). Individuals with low self-esteem often feel inadequate and
incompetent, almost always expecting to fail. They view themselves as less than
others and feel as if they cannot amount to the same standards as their
students. They feel exiled from their peers and are constantly searching for an
“in” to the cool crowd. Student-athletes often have a higher global self-esteem
in more advanced levels of competitiveness as well as body-esteem (Gadbois, S.

2003). Student-athletes can occasionally be perceived as “arrogant” due to
their high self-esteem levels. They often walk with their heads higher because
they have their sports and their stats to prove they are successful in
something that matters. Higher levels of self-esteem also are involved with
better leadership skills. Leadership skills are important because the
adolescents of today will be the government and business decision makers of the
world (Griffin, R. S. 1998). Being a leader can also help develop other skills
not necessarily only valuable in the sports world, another reason being
involved in sports is so beneficial. Involvement in sports brings forth the
leadership qualities, which are often sought after by others in role models
such as their coaches and other players. This is a great way for the
student-athletes to see what it means to be a good role model and leader in
life. In a study, Dobosz examined the relationship between adolescents’ and
their participation in athletics as well as their leadership skills in 60
students from a suburban high school, the results were that student-athletes
demonstrated significantly greater leadership skills than did non-athletes
(Dobosz, R. P., & Beaty, L. A. 1999). Often time’s non-athletes are never put
in a situation where they have to use their leadership’s skills, so when a
moment finally arises they often feel confused and lost because they are not
sure what being a leader truly even means. Mentally, from personal experience,
being a student-athlete can give you that ‘big-headed’ feeling. You can feel as
if you’re superior to others because you are making a bigger name for yourself
by participating and ultimately being successful in whatever sport you play.

Participation in high school sports has many benefits when it comes to
self-esteem and the ability to be called popular. However, how you handle these
benefits reveals your true colors. There are those who use their peer given
authority for good and to help others, and those who use it instead to belittle
those they believe to “inferior” to them. With these studies of self-confidence
and self-esteem in student-athletes it is important to remember the study being
conducted which are the effects of student-athletes and their sexual behaviors.

Self-esteem and high confidence brings in sexual bargaining. Boys like to see a
girl that is confident. Confidence gives off a “sexy” demeanor to many men.

When girls walk with their head high and they are seemingly confident or proud
of themselves they are often viewed as more attractive and receive more
attention for males.  The
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Methods

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?In the
initial survey I will have each student-athlete at Clovis East High School
answer personal questions about their age, race, grade, gender, mother’s
education, the kind of grades they are receiving, and how far they think they
will go in school. Following this first questionnaire I will then ask a series
of questions that have to do with which involve imagining they the
student-athlete is with someone they liked a lot and if they could, probably
could, probably could not, or could not do what the statement is asking. The
third of the questionnaire is called the ‘is it ok?’ part of the survey, with
these questions being forms of peer pressure from other student-athletes.

Lastly the questionnaire will question the friends of the student-athletes and
what they know their friends have done sexually. Following the hand-written
questionnaire I will conduct an interview with the student-athletes that I want
to personally bring in for the face-to-face interviews. I will simply ask them
a series of questions that are similar to the questionnaire to identify if
there is a change of heart in the answers given. Often times people can confess
easier on a piece of paper knowing that they will remain anonymous rather than
face-to-face with someone. I believe this could be fear of judgment, or even
possibly fear of punishment for their answers.   The the the the the the the the the
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Integration

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When
looking at this research through an interdisciplinary outlook I found a
connection between sociology and psychology in a student-athlete. Sports are a
way for youth to stay active, meet new people and build confidence. Many
parents like to start their children in as many sports as possible at a young
age in hopes that they will develop a passion for a certain sport and continue
to play. As you grow up sports become more serious, deciding whether you want
to play in high school and work hard enough to get a scholarship to a college
to continue to play. With this being said the work rate of the student-athlete
in high school must be at an elite level for the athlete to perform well and
student to not only pass their classes by high school requirements but also
ensure they are meeting the requirements of any colleges they could potentially
be interested in. Student-athletes at any level have a tough schedule
including, class, practices, traveling, games, and extra curricular activities
meaning that the social life of an athlete is small to non-existent. Most of the
time athletes solely form friendships and connections with other athletes
because they can understand the busy schedules and the difficulty to make real
plans. Coleman argued that peer values of the adolescent acceptance plays a
dangerous role in the process of the development of student-athletes and their
socialization (Coleman, 1961). I remember my days as a student-athlete in high
school, it came with publicity throughout the school because you were either
dressed for game day or team posters were posted throughout the school, yet I
hardly remember going out. My days were filled with homework and trainings. A
lot of the times I found my fellow teammates being burnt out. A burn out in
sports is considered a chronic, excessive stress among young athletes (Coakley,
J. 1992). In addition staying focused was a challenge, by this I mean the peer
pressure of going out and doing all the things a high school upper classman
should do. As I started to get older and went into high school playing sports I
realized that being called a student-athlete could have its social perks. I
then quickly found out about the peer pressure that could come with sports
(Santor, D. 2000). Peer pressure is a bigger risk factor in the need to be
popular (Messervey, D. 2000). Peer pressure is your surrounding friends or
peers, attempting to get you to do something you may be hesitant about by
mocking you, degrading you, or worse case scenario, threatening you. I got a
good taste of the stereotypical high school student-athlete and the participation
that accounts for the different effects on boys and girls sexual behavior.  The the the the the the the the the
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Expected Results

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?I predict that with the implications of race, age, ethnicity,
mother’s education, and sports participation I will come to find that female
athletes are less sexually active and less likely to have enough time for a
social life causing them to be at a higher rate of athletic burnout than boys.

I also predict that in boys their sexual activity will be higher than that of the
females and more likely to have a bigger social circle. In another sense I
predict that the student-athletes will not be completely honest with their
answering during face-to-face interview. Therefore, I will take their written
answers in to much more consideration to achieve the most accurate findings. In
the interview I expect to be able to see the reaction of the student-athlete in
their answers. I would assume that once I ask certain questions that I will be
able to read how comfortable or uncomfortable that student is when it comes to
answering. I also believe I will be able to make a strong guess about how
honest each student was being with me based on their body language, depth of
answer, and reaction time to the question. I am hoping that I can get the
students to be more open with me by ensuring they know what we discuss is
confidential and that there will be no judgments placed so that their
interviews can be more heavily factored into my end result because the more
data, the stronger the experiment. 

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