Abstract TBis a communicable disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosisbacteria. This bacterium Causes lesions in the lungs, known as tubercles. It influenceslungs in 80 percent cases. However, it also can affect other body parts suchas, abdominal cavity, joints, meninges, female reproductive organs, skin.
Propertreatment and medication can treat, prevent and cure TB. Tableof Content1. Introduction2. Epidemiology3. Typesof TB4. Causes/riskfactors5. Signand symptoms6.
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Diagnosis7. Treatment8. Prevention9. Conclusion10. References IntroductionIn1882, German Microbiologist Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosisbacterium which causes tuberculosis(TB).
This bacterium founded in both humans andanimals. It causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge,2016). TB is contiguous disease.However, it can be cured, prevent and treated.
EpidemiologyTB affects one-third of the world’s population. It is themost preeminent cause of death and second leading cause of death from communicabledisease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The casedetection rate was around 64% because around 3.3 million people who affectedfrom TB was not reported or not diagnosed. At thesame time, 1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TBis particularly found in Africa and Asia.
As a result of, 86% of TB cases reportedin these areas (Kakchapati, Gyawali, Jha , 2012). the burden ofTB is Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB) which is the result of inadequatetreatment or irregular medications. Resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicinis known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher (Kakchapatiet al., 2012). Types of TB90% people infected by Mycobacteriumtuberculosis bacteria remains asymptomatic and they can not spread an infectionto others known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn,2013). Approximately 10% of latent infection can progress to active infectionif not treated properly on time. Active infection has symptoms.
It can transmitthe infection to others. There are another two types of tuberculosis, pulmonaryand extra pulmonary TB which is categorized on the basis of human organs. In pulmonaryTB the lungs is affected. TB which affects others parts such as, skin, femalereproductive organs, meninges, the abdominal cavity is known as extra pulmonaryTB. In diagnosed cases 85% of Tb is pulmonary Tb whereas 15% of Tb isextrapulmonary.Causes/Risk Factorsmycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is themain cause of TB. It can spread by droplet.
When the infected person exhales,cough, sneeze and laughs, the bacilli released into the air. If the healthyperson inhales the air they can infected. On the other hand, TB is consideredas less infectious in compare with other infectious disease (Cooper, odle, 2014). overcrowding homelessness, malnutrition, HTV infection mayincrease the risk of TB .Sign/ symptoms 90% of people who is infected with M.
tuberculosis remains asymptomatic. Despite, active pulmonary TB have symptomslike sputum production, chronic cough, appetite loss, weight loss, weakness,fever, night sweats and hemoptysis (Zumla et al.,2013). Fluid may collect inpleural cavity which is known as pleural effusion may cause difficulty in breathingand shortness of breathing. Recurrent cough occur for weeks to months (Cooperet al., 2014).DiagnosisThe tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gammarelease assay can use for diagnosis of latent infection and risk groups.However, these test is not relevant for active TB (Zumla et al.
, 2013). Theculture and sputum microscopy is standard methods to diagnose active TB (Zumla etal., 2013). Treatment There are different drugs which are use forthe treatment of TB. They are Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide.However, the usage of drugs is it differs for latent and active TB as well as MDR-TB.
Person who is suffering from latent Tb and have increased risk to developedactive TB. Preventive treatment need to apply for the patients who sufferingfrom latent TB. Similarly, in latent phase isoniazid 300mg daily given for sixmonths and recommended to continue until nine months if its co infected withHIV infection. Directly observed therapy (DOT) is used to control MDR-TB bytuberculosis control programmers which helps to decrease the number ofdefaulting therapy (Dheda, 2016).
MDR-TB needed long term treatment compare to otherTB. PreventionGenerally, Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG)vaccine is used to prevent from TB. BCG is one of the most effective method toprevent TB during childhood. People infected with HIV a lives in high burdenarea with unknown result of tuberculin test and with out active TB recommendedto have isoniazid for at least 6 months as preventive therapy (Zumla et al., 2013).
In addition, there are various preventivemeasures of TB. In high risk area regular screening program need to do and needavoid overcrowd and maintain hygiene which can help to prevent TB. Conclusion