Abstract- The paperis designed for street light with auto intensity control with the help of PWMtechnique using solar power controlled by Raspberry Pi board.
As sun isrenewable source of solar energy, awareness for solar energy is increasing, andeveryone is trying to use solar energy for their work. Solar panels are usedfor charging solar cells by converting the sunlight into electricity. Theintensity of street lights is required to be kept high during traffic. As thetraffic on the roads decreases in late nights, the intensity of street lightcan be reduced.
In High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) the intensity is notcontrollable because when reduction of voltage is done then discharge pathbreaks. But in LED lights because of PWM technique the intensity is controllable.A Raspberry Pi board is used to provide different intensities at the differentsituations of traffic at night time using PWM techniques, for energy saving. Intelligentstreet lighting system turns the light ON and OFF depending on the vehicle orpedestrian movement. Key words- LED Lamps, Raspberrypi, Sensors, LDR, RFID card and Reader. I. IntroductionThe Street lights are the major requirements intoday’s life for safety purposes, to reduce crime rate and avoiding accidentsduring night. Providing street lighting is one of the most important andexpensive responsibilities of a city.
It also encourages social inclusion byproviding an environment in which people feel they can walk in hours ofdarkness. Despite that in today’s busy lifestyle no one bothers to switchlights OFF/ON when not required. Inefficient lighting wastes significantfinancial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costsdramatically. At present,street lamps are controlled manually in most of the cities. Generally streetlights are switched ON for whole night and, during the day, they are switchedOFF. But at night time there is no necessity of street lights when there is no traffic.
The proposed system in this paper implements smart street lighting system inwhich block of street lights turns ON after detection of vehicle and as soon asthe vehicle moves ahead the trailing lights automatically switches OFF. Now-a-days,the street lights are working on electricity. The electricity is generated byrenewable and nonrenewable sources. Nonrenewable sources are getting reducedday by day.
In proposed system instead of using nonrenewable sources, renewablesource such as sun is used to generate the energy to switch ON the streetlights. The paper presents an automatic street lightcontroller using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). By using this system manualworks are removed. The street lights are automatically switched ON when thesunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF thestreetlight when ample amount of sunlight is available, it means LDR resistanceis inversely proportional to light falling on it. Whenever there is sufficientlight falling on the LDR, it exhibits high resistance and acts as an insulatorand in darkness the LDR behaves as low resistance path and allows the flow ofelectricity.When the light falls on the LDR it sends the commandsto the control circuit that it should be in the OFF state and the streetlightturns OFF. This proposed system provides a solution for energysaving.
This is achieved by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ONa street light ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lightsgets dimmed automatically. II. RELATED WORKS Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typicalcities worldwide.
Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for publicauthorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance foreconomic and social stability. The main consideration in the present fieldtechnologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness.Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligentsystems. The busy lifestyle of humans has led to untimely switching of streetlights. As a result lot of power is being wasted. The advanced development inembedded system has set a platform for designing energy efficient systems.Electrical Power wastage can be reduced by using two light dependent resistorsas light sensing devices or light sensors to indicate day or night time. Aphotoelectric sensor has been used to detect the movement of humans andvehicles on the streets.
The supply to the control unit and to light the streetlight is being achieved by the implementation of solar panels. Overview ofthe previous work done related to the vehicle movement using street lightdetection by different authors is explained in the literature survey. Thestrategic implementation of the different communication technologies and themethodology used in system is discussed briefly. “The Smart Street Light System based onImage Processing” 1 implemented byVeena P C, Paulsy Tharakan, Hima Haridas, Ramya K, Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T Sin 2016 consists of LED Lamps, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, LDR, OLFC. The SmartStreet Light System based on Image Processing, is a hardware applicationwhich takes video as input and detect movement of vehicles and human beingsto switch ON only a chunk of street lights ahead of it (vehicle & human),and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy . The Object Level Framecomparison methodology is used to detect the vehicles and humans.
Sensors arealso included in this system to detect whether the temperature and gas areexceeding in the particular area and send a SMS immediately to thecorresponding department via a GSM module. Raspberry Pi is used as the platformas it enables the number of modules to be connected to it through the variousports. A camera connected to the Raspberry Pi is the element through whichinput image is taken. The LDR is used to measure the intensity of light. Themerits of this system are power reduction and this system is used to saveenergy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan.
Because of thesetwo demerits this system is not much efficient 1. “AnIntelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSMTechnology” 2 implemented by Ms.Swati Rajesh Parekar, Prof. Manoj M.
Dongre in 2015, consists of Atmegamicrocontroller, GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, Street Light. The system is designed such a way that lightssensors (LDR), RTC and Presence sensor placed in all street lights circuit willturn ON and OFF lamps automatically. When the lights are turn ON every lightpole having current sensor informs about fault to the centralized system byusing GSM module attached to circuit via Short Message Service (SMS). Theinformation through SMS is received at Base station with Raspberry Pi (a computemodule), analyzes the data and the status of street lamp is visualized withhelp of Graphical User Interface (GUI).
This makes the fault detection andmaintenance of system easy than the conventional system. System makes the mostefficient use of the energy received from the sun to power street lights. Themerits of this system are use of solar panels and this system is flexibleaccording to need of user and demerit of this system is that this system isvery expensive. Because of this the system is not useful in the rural areaswhere there is low budget. The rural area lighting is the main application ofour project and this system does not applicable there 2. “Design and implementation of Traffic Flowbased Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy” 3implemented by M.Abhishek , Syed ajram shah, K.
Chetan, K.Arun kumar used, 8052series microcontroller, LDR, Photoelectric Sensor, Street Lights in Design andimplementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effectiveutilization of solar energy. In this system renewable source of energy i.e.,solar power is used for street lighting. Apart from this, normal bulbs arereplaced in street lighting with LEDs due to which the power consumption inreduced by 3 times. And also, IR sensors are used to detect the movement ofobject to activate the lighting a few meters before the object is about toreach the lighting area.
Here, the IR sensors are deactivated after a timingdelay of 30seconds and similarly remaining sensors are activated anddeactivated after 30seconds. The process is controlled by 8052 seriesmicrocontroller. The merits of this system are power reduction and this systemis used to save energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan.Because of these two demerits this system is not much efficient. Because of nobackup plan we cannot relia on the system totally. Because of this we have tosearch for other options 3. “Internet of Things Based IntelligentStreet Lighting System for Smart City” 4 implemented by Parkash, Prabu V, Dandu Rajendra in 2016.This system is implemented with smart embedded system which controls the streetlights based on detection of vehicles or any other obstacles on the street.
Whenever the vehicle is detected light will get automatically ON/OFF and thesame information can be accessed through internet. The system architecture ofthe intelligent street light system consists of IR sensors, LDR, PIC16F877Amicrocontroller, Relay, UART and Wi-Fi Module. When a light dependent resistoris kept in dark, its resistance is very high. The vehicle which passes by thestreet light is detected by IR sensor (IR transmitter and IR receiver couple).Relays are used as a switch to switch on/off the street light bulb. The realtime information of the street light (ON/OFF Status) can be accessed fromanytime, anywhere through internet. Themerit of this system is reduction of manpower, automatic switching of streetlights, reduction in CO?emission, Reduction of light pollution, wireless communication, energy savingand demerits are initial cost and maintenance is high. Because of thesetwo demerits this system is not much efficient.
And it is not used in suchareas where there is less budget to implement smart street lighting project4. “Smart street lighting system based onProgrammable Logic Controller (PLC)” 5 implemented by Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Dr. K.R.
Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuniin 2014 describe about and input sensing devices. The proposed controller givesfast, reliable, and power efficient street lamp switching based on seasonalvariations. The simulated results are also verified experimentally by using aLight Dependent Resistor (LDR) which senses the light. LDR is used as thereplacement for the seasonal variation.
This paper confirms that the proposedPLC based street lighting control system has great potential to revolutionizestreet lighting which in turn saves large amount of power.But PLC’s are usedfor automation of industrial electro-mechanical processes which does not helpin our proposed system 5. III.
SYSTEM MODEL AND COMPONENTS The proposedsystem provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by sensing anapproaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights ahead of thevehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing light gets dimmedautomatically.
Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles onthe highway, then intensity of light becomes low. This system isdeveloped using Raspberry Pi along with various sensors sensing the vehicle.LDR is used to automatically switch ON the street lights when the sunlight goesbelow the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the streetlight when someamount of sunlight is available. LDR is used to identify the difference betweenday and night.
This system should have to turn ON at night time and remains OFFat day time and this is achieved with the help of LDR. To sense the vehicle IRsensors are used. Pair of IR transmitter and receiver situated on both sides ofthe road detects vehicles and give command to control unit to turn ON/OFF blockof street light. When vehicle or anyother object is sensed by IR sensor, then the street lights will glow. And ifvehicle or any other object is not detected by IR sensor, then the streetlights will remain in OFF state.
The control unit used here is Raspberry Pi. The energysupply required for control unit and street lights is given from the renewablesource, Sun. The solar energy is taken with help of solar panel and stored in abattery. The energy stored in battery is in the form of AC but Raspberry Piwork on DC. So ADC operation is required in proposed system. Raspberry Picannot drive LEDs directly, so MOSFET drive is required to drive LED. The mainpower supply is used as a backup plan when solar panels are not workingproperly or when there is insufficient solar energy. To drive Raspberry Pi +5VDC supply is required.
The supply frommains is 230V, 50Hz. To convert this into +5V DC supply transformer, rectifier,filter are used. RFID card onthe car and RFID reader on the pole is placed. With help of RFID reader wholeinformation of car can ban be displayed on LCD. The information of car is itsunique plate no. and information of car owner.
To avoid collision ultrasonicsensor is used. In rainy seasonsometimes there may be condition that the driver may not see beyond some limit.So in such situation the ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to get theinformation about the vehicles or obstacles ahead of him. There may be someanother situations too, so to drive safely in such tricky condition is verydifficult job.
In such cases ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to drivesafely. Sometimeswhen driver feels sleepy there is a chance of accident. In proposed system when driverlose his grip from steering, then vibrations are given to driver’s chair.Because of this chances of accident reduces to some extent. Fig 1: Block Diagram of Vehicle Movementusing Street Light DetectionIV.
IMPLIMENTATION Flow of the implemented system is explained withthe help of following flowcharts. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart for checking dayand night condition using LDR. Flowchart for vehicle detection is shown in Fig3. Firstinitialize all the devices.
After the initialization is done, check day andnight condition using LDR. As we know the LDR is Light Dependent Resistor, itworks on the internal resistance. At day time internal resistance is high andat night time internal resistance is low. When resistance is low, make streetlighting system ON. When resistance is high make street lighting system OFF. Afterdetection of vehicle by IR sensor, IR sensor will send signal to Raspberry pito turn ON street light.
When the vehicle is not detected by IR sensor, thestreet light will remains OFF. Fig 2: Flowchart for checking day and nightcondition using LDR Fig 3: Flowchart for vehicle detection VI. ANALYSIS In table 1, it shows an analysis and comparison aboutcurrent systems. Table 1: Analysis of recently proposedsystem Title of Paper Components Used Merits Demerits Smart Street Light System based on Image Processing LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, sensors, LDR, OLFC . Power reduction , Used to save energy High initial cost ,No backup plan. An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM Technology At mega , GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, Street Light. Use of solar panels, Flexible according to need of user. Expensive.
Design and implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy Microcontroller ,LDR, Photoelectric sensor. Automatic ON/OFF mechanism of street lights. Because of one microcontroller the controllability and operation of street lighting is difficult. Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City PIC Microcontroller, IR Sensor, Current Sensor, LDR, Intel Galileo Gen2. Reduction of manpower. Initial cost and maintenance is high .
VII. RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION In proposed system IR sensor will detect the movementof vehicle. When vehicle is detected by IR sensor, it will inform to controlunit i.e. Raspberry Pi about the presence of vehicle.
Then Raspberry Pi willcontrol the switching operation of street light. To turn ON the system we haveto use LDR. LDR will check intensity of light. According to light intensity (ifit is low, then system will turn ON and if intensity is high system remainsOFF). The energy provided to whole system is solar energy with the help ofsolar panels and this energy is stored in batteries.
Whenever there is absenceof solar energy or failure of solar supply to the system, the main switch will give energy to whole system. To knowabout the information of car, RFID card and RFID reader is used and theinformation is displayed on LCD. To avoid collision ultrasonic sensor is used. When driver feels sleepy , to alert him and toavoid accident vibrations are provided to driver’s chair. Fig 4: Expected result As shown inabove Fig 4, the street lights should glow after detecting vehicle or otherobject. VIII.CONCLUSIONThe project has been studied and designed usingraspberry pi. The main benefit of the present system is power saving.
Thisinitiative will help the government to save this energy and meet the domesticand industrial needs. In addition to energy consumption, another advantage itprovides less maintenance cost. This project is cost effective, practical, andthe safe to travel at night time. According to statistical data we can savemore electrical energy that is now consumed by the highways. We haveimplemented a prototype of this system.
The proposed system is especiallyappropriate for street lighting in city and rural areas where the traffic islow at night times. Independence of the power network permits to implement itin remote areas where the classical systems are prohibitively expensive. Thesystem is versatile, extendable and totally adjustable to user need. REFERENCES 1 VeenaP C, Paulsy Tharakan , Hima Haridas, Ramya K , Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S,”SmartStreet Light System based on Image Processing,” 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and ComputingTechnologies ICCPCT 2 Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar , Prof. Manoj M. Dongre, “An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling ofStreet Light using GSM Technology,” 2015 International Conference on Information Processing (ICIP)Vishwakarma Institute of Technology.Dec 16-19,2015 3 M.Abhishek ,Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar,”Design and implementation ofTraffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization ofsolar energy,” International Journal of Science Engineering and AdvanceTechnology, IJSEAT, Vol 3, Issue 9 ISSN 2321-6905 September-2015 4 Parkash, PrabuV, Dandu Rajendra ,”Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street LightingSystem for Smart City,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol.
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K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni, “PLCbased Smart S Street LightingControl”, I.J.
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