Abstract In recent years, the IT ethics has exploded inboth volume and importance due to ethical beliefs and decision-making. Thiswill explore the problems and ethical conflicts that might come across in an ITbased working place and would provide readers ways of how to avoid havingunethical behavior and methods of ethical analysis and also how to face ethicaldilemmas with the help of using the code of ethics whenever needed. It wouldalso talk about topics such as data protection and privacy, cloudcomputing, computer security, data monitoring, software piracy, socialconsequences and ethical behavior. In addition, providing acts which are notmorally right to do and ways of helping both parties which would be inconflict. KeywordsData protection andprivacy, cloud computing, IT ethics, software piracy, data monitoring, LiteraturereviewComputer ethicsMoore suggested that thestudy of computer ethics is needed because there is a vacuum of policiessurrounding the new possibilities. He defines computer ethics as the analysisof the nature and social impact of computer technology and the correspondingformulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such atechnology. Ethical theories provide categories and procedures for determiningwhat is ethically relevant.
There are various avenues of ethical reasoning.Modern ethical theory can be divided into two broad categories: teleologicaland deontological. Teleological ethical theories focus primarily on theconsequences, results, ends, goals or purposes of agent acts. They givepriority to the good over the right, and they evaluate actions by the goal orconsequences that they attain. Utilitarianism, a form of consequentialism, atheory predicted on the assumption that consequences determine the rightness orwrongness of moral actions is an example of teleological approach to ethics. Deontological ethical theories center on theact taken by the agent and the duties, rights, privileges or responsibilitiesthat pertain to that act.
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According to a deontological framework, actions areintrinsically right or wrong regardless of the consequences they produce.Deontological theories include both duty-based and rights-based approaches toethical reasoning, sometimes referred to as pluralism or contractarianismrespectively. The fundamental difference between the two is that deontologicalperspectives focus on the specific actions or behaviors of an individual whileteleological perspectives focus on the consequences of the actions. (McCarthyet al.
, 2005) Data protection andprivacyPersonal privacy and the protection ofpersonal identifying information are of concern to all of us. Innumerablearticles and conferences address our loss of privacy, either through the saleof consumer databases or our own inattention. Opinions vary from “You haveno privacy; get over it” to “This is the end of civil liberties as weknow them. We teach people to safely maneuver on the Internet and minimizetheir exposure to bogus sites set up to steal their identity, warn users aboutthe dangers of phishing and posting personal information on social networksites, use firewalls to protect our databases, and enact laws such as theHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the FamilyEducational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) to protect information. However,what are the data custodians doing with the information in their possession? Inaddition, what about the companies that are mining the vast stores of raw datathat are just waiting to be converted to knowledge? Exploring this topic is theraison d’être of this book, written by a financial reporter for the WashingtonPost. (kessler, 2007)(George E. Higgins, 2006)Cloud computingThough an evolving paradigm, genomic cloudcomputing can be defined as a scalable service where genetic sequenceinformation is stored and processed virtually (i.e.
, in the ‘cloud’) usuallyvia networked, large-scale data centers accessible remotely through variousclients and platforms over the Internet. Rather than buying more servers forthe local research site, as was done in the past, genomic cloud computingallows researchers to use technologies, such as application programming interfaces(APIs) to launch servers. Various cloud-computing platforms have emerged forgenomic researchers, including Galaxy, Bionimbus and DNA nexus, which allowresearchers to perform genomic analyses using only a web browser. These platformsin turn may run on specific clouds provided by cloud service providers (CSPs).
One of the greatest concerns about storing genomic data in the cloud is whetherthe data are secure. Researchers may fear that storing data on the cloud willlead to potential unauthorized access to patient data and liability andreputation damage that could result from a mandatory breach notification, suchas that stipulated in HIPAA. Even though genomic data stripped of identifiers(including names, addresses, birthdates and the like) may not constitute’personal health information’ for HIPAA or other similar health informationprivacy law purposes, recent literature suggests that this could well change.Consequently, researchers have reason to seriously consider the security issuesof genomic cloud computing and the role of privacy laws. (Edward S Dove, 2015) Data security and confidentiality on astructural level, there is a contrast between the nature of cloud computing,built on the idea of ‘locationlessness’ (or at least disparate localization),and data privacy laws, which are still based on geographic borders andlocation-specific data processing systems. As a cloud, computing is largelybuilt on the idea of seamless, borderless sharing and storage of data, it canrun into tension with different national jurisdictions governing citizens’rights over privacy and protection of personal data. Indeed, as cloud computingenables personal (health) data to be transferred across national, regional and/orprovincial borders, where little consensus exists about which authorities havejurisdiction over the data, cloud clients and providers will each need tounderstand and comply with the different rules in place—to the extent suchrules exist. In an environment where data exchange by researchers is no longera point-to-point transaction within one country but instead is characterized bytransnational, dynamic and decentralized flow, the legal distinction betweennational and international data use may become less meaningful than in thepast.
(Edward S Dove, 2015)Data monitoringControl issues arise in Terms of Servicesections pertaining to data monitoring. Can the CSP monitor hosted genomicdata, and if so, what form should the monitoring take and what conditionsshould apply. Even though most commercial CSPs encrypt data while in transitand at rest, researchers should still verify that the data are encrypted (andfind out how they are encrypted). Additionally, if it is researchers that encryptthe data, they should query whether they want the CSP to have access todecryption keys. Although monitoring of traffic data or bandwidth consumptionmay be acceptable, researchers could be concerned with a CSP monitoringpersonal data or aggregate genomic data uploaded to the cloud, even if suchmonitoring is to ensure compliance with an accepted use policy. (Edward S Dove, 2015) Software piracy Software piracy is animportant emerging crime that criminologists need to research.
Specifically,given that software piracy can lead to prison sentences and/or fines, that itis actively being prosecuted, and that it has several different layers offinancial costs, the behavior is a substantial problem in need of deterrence.Sherizen (1995) remarked that: there is a need for information securitycriminal justice practitioners to determine how best to change the existingperceptions regarding the risks of getting caught in computer crime activitiesincluding software piracy as well as the perceived payoffs of suchactivities. Early and contemporary software piracy research attempted toprofile the collegiate software pirate. Such research indicated that collegestudents are ripe for software piracy because: they were never told what wasand was not expected of them with respect to hardware and software use, theywere not acquainted with the law, and they were generally confronted withethical issues (Cook, 1986, 1987). The BSA (2003) supported most of these viewsfrom Cook (1986, 1987), and showed that most students did not believe thatcurrent university policies about unlicensed software were effective. Hinduja(2003) also supported the view of Cook (1986, 1987) that college students werefaced with ethical issues and decisions, and suggested that software pirateswere likely to participate in other forms of unethical behavior such asacademic dishonesty.
(George E. Higgins, 2006) ConclusionIn conclusion to thisessay unethical behaviors are varied and different from industry to industryand IT industry being the spotlight in the current century makes it moreprominent to the current world. Although employees are the center of mostbusinesses these behaviors affect them or happen because of them in a closecontext.
This behavior may differ from the ethical and legality aspect of anybusiness organization. And hence while recruiting and employee therepercussions of such behaviors has to be stated beforehand and this way theperson doing it and the person witnessing it can be aware of it and avoid themin the near future. Lastly business ethicalissues will always exist in an organization and the key to overcome thesesuccessfully is to provide proper training to the employees on ethics and tohave a favorable relationship with them in order to uplift the ethical behaviorof the work place.
1515 words References Edward S Dove, Y. J.-M.
(2015). Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1271–1278. George E. Higgins, B. D. (2006). Digital Piracy: Assessing the Contributions of an Integrated Self?Control Theory and Social Learning Theory Using Structural Equation Modeling.
Criminal Justice Studies , 3-22. kessler, G. (2007). no place to hide. burlington : Association of Digital Forensics, Security and Law.
McCarthy, R. V. (2007). Digital Piracy: Assessing the Contributions of an Integrated Self?Control Theory and Social Learning Theory Using Structural Equation Modeling.