ABSTRACT major challenges of modern competitive organizations and

ABSTRACT

Performance
Appraisal is an important tools in the hands of personnel management because
this technique accomplishes the main objective of the organization to the
development of the people by appraising the worth of the individual.

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The rational
behind these appraisal system is that different evaluation perspectives add
objectivity and incremental validity to the assessment of individual
performance. The success of an organization depends on the performance of the
employees and it’s the human tendency to judge everything and everyone around
them. There are different method of Performance Appraisal based on the type of
the organization, size of the organization and also the period when it is used.
The 720 degree evaluation is emerging as a possible alternative appraisal
technique. Organizations are slowly but steadily realizing the need for this
new system, which is better than the existing 360 degree evaluation, especially
in terms of the focus of the evaluation and the involvement of the evaluators
in the process.

So as the
name suggests 720 degree performance appraisal is the evaluation of the
performance of the employee from all the aspects and giving timely feedback to
ensure that the person is able to achieve the set goals before the next
appraisal.

In modern
business scenarios where job roles have become more diverse it’s not easy to
measure the performance of any employee. This is where performance appraisal
methods can be really helpful .This paper subjects to the need of 720 degree
performance appraisal in current business scenario and justify an upper hand of
720 degree performance appraisal over other traditional approach.  

 

INTRODUCTION

One of the major
challenges of modern competitive organizations and institutions is Employee
Development where Employees are the greatest Asset and backbone of an organization
so called as the Human Resource. It is the very need of every institution to value,
nurture and retain their employees with them, which is beneficial for organizational
success. In the beginning an employee is like a Flower Bud which has to be
given proper care and support through developmental activities to blossom like
a Flower. Development can take place through number of training, motivation and
developmental activities. Motivational factors like Promotion, Appraisals, Recognition,
Respect and Rewards are the few to enhance the employee skills and activities .So
employer need to spend some time and resource in developing and appraising
their employees. Benefits of Performance Appraisal are reaped by both employee
as well as the organization where he renders his service.

From the
time Human beings have evolved they have employed different methods to appraise
the performance starting from the traditional “comparison method” to the modern
“720 degree appraisal method”

The 720
degree evaluation is the emerging as a possible alternative appraisal
technique. Organizations are slowly but steadily realizing the need for this
new system, which is better than existing 360 degree evaluation, especially in
terms of the focus of the evaluation and the involvement of the evaluators in
the process. For instance, the 360 degree appraisal facilities the formal assessment
of an employee by the evaluators like the customer or the employee, possibly
with the help of appraisal forms. But the 720 degree evaluation goes one step
further and insists on a better focused, personalized and in depth review of
the employees occupying managerial positions. The evaluation of the employee is
usually done through detailed personal interviews with the performance
evaluators. The 720 degree evaluation concentrates more on what matters the
most for an organization. For instance, it could be clients views and
perceptions of the performance of the employees. The merit of this method is
that it makes both the evaluator and the employee happy and comfortable. While
the clients would appreciate a company which is more responsible and serious in
knowing their opinions, the appraised employee would feel happy to be evaluated
and appreciated by the clients they serve.

To Judge the
performance of the employees, the traditional approach is no longer effective,
because of heavy workload of managers and supervisors, they unable to give
sufficient time for judgment and for fair, accurate performance appraisals. The
major problem in the traditional methods of appraisal was that it did not guide
the employee after the appraisal that’s why the 720° performance appraisal was
introduced. Which will helps the managers to measure, analyzed the performance
of the employees at the same time it will provide proper feedback and guidance
to the employees to achieve their set target effectively.  

 

LITERATURE
REVIEW –

A study on
“Customer Centric Evalations”by Galbreath, Richard D and also the paper “Ask
The Customer “by Jacobson, Leo, demonstrates the importance of using a 720
degree performance appraisal system , in the sense that in such type of an
appraisal system, the expectations of customers are clearly aligned with the
performance goals of the employees. This increases the loyalty of the customers
towards the organizations thereby increasing profits of the organizations. Another
paper “Clarifying the structure of justice using fairness perceptions of
performance appraisal practices” by Paul W Thurston Jr, Pin points that the
new trend of using a 720 degree appraisal system, does away with all biases, prejudices
and discriminations while evaluating of employees.

OBJECTIVES
OF THE STUDY –

·       
To
identify the difference between the 720 degree performance appraisal system and
traditional performance appraisal system.

·       
To
identify the need to incorporate the new 720 degree performance appraisal
system.

·       
To
study the various dimensions of the 720 degree performance To identify the
difference between the 720 degree performance appraisal system and traditional
performance appraisal system.

·       
To
identify the need to incorporate the new 720 degree performance appraisal system.

·       
To
study the various dimensions of the 720 degree performance appraisal system.

·       
To
develop a model to determine the role of 720 degree performance appraisal for
evaluation of professors in educational institutions.

 DIMENSIONS OF 720-DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

a) PRE APPRAISAL FEEDBACK   This is
the first appraisal step that is done after the feedback is collected from the
different dimensions or people with whom the employee would interact. In this
step, the performance is evaluated, targets are set and feedback or training is
organized to help the employee achieve the target.

 b) SELF APPRAISAL   The
employee is given a questionnaire and asked to evaluate his performance and
through this method, the employee gets an opportunity to express his thoughts
and his valuation of strengths, weakness and judge his performance. This is an
appraisal by the person himself/herself.

c) PEERS/COLLEAGUES APPRAISAL   The
feedback from the peers or colleagues is important as it helps to understand
the ability of the employee to work as a team, co-operate, co-ordinate with
others and bring out the best. The peers are supposed to give a 

d) CUSTOMER APPRAISAL In order to survive in the current
competitive market, Organizations aim at achieving high customer satisfaction.
Customer feedback helps to analyze the customer? point of view and help to
improve the person and the Organization.

e) SUB-ORDINATES APPRAISAL   The
feedback of the sub-ordinates is essential to analyze the organizing skills of
the employee and to understand his abilities like communication and motivating
abilities, ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities and way of
handling responsibilities.

 f) MANGERS/SUPERIORS
APPRAISAL   In this, the performance, responsibilities and
the attitude of the employee is evaluated by the Superiors or Managers.

 g) POST APPRAISAL
FEEDBACK   It is this step that makes the 720-degree
performance appraisal different and better than the 360-degree performance
appraisal method. In this step, the performance is evaluated based on the
target set in the Pre appraisal and feedback is given. Timely feedback and
guidance helps to make the employee improve his performance. 

MERITS OF 720-DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: 
720 Degree performance appraisal will help in creating a synergetic work
environment and will help to bring out the best of each employee. The other
benefits of the 720 degree performance appraisal are as follows: 

 It helps in better
analysis and improved feedback from different dimensions

 Helps to develop a
better and co-operative team

 Reduces the appraisal
barriers like prejudice, bias and discrimination

 Customer feedback is
valued. Better customer service and satisfaction can be obtained

 Encourages
transparency and feeling of treated justly.  

DEMERITS OF 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:

The appraisers consider that 720 Degree performance appraisal
method is a time consuming process.

The appraisers consider that the monetary requirement is
higher for 720 Degree performance appraisal method as appraisal/feedback has to
be done twice. 

The appraisers consider that there might be quality problem
as all the 7 dimensions of appraisal in 720 Degree performance appraisal method
might not be accurate.

 

 WHY COMPANIES SHOULD
USE 720…?

This system is more development focused than performance
alone, and supplements training and development functions in a better way. A
powerful developmental tool because when conducted at regular intervals it
helps to keep a track of the changes, others’ perceptions about the employees. Many
organizations are beginning to realize that the skill base of their executives
and managers does not match the requirements of a rapidly changing environment.
Without these critical competencies, executives and managers are less likely to
be able to lead these organizations toward successful implementation of
strategic changes 

METHODOLOGY –

The study is descriptive in nature. The secondary data is
used for the study. The secondary data is collected from the various books,
journals, articles etc.

 

 

FINDINGS:

As per research paper International Journal of
Multidisciplinary Research here are the findings

PARAMETERS

RESULT IN PERCENTAGE

CURRENT APPRAISAL METHOD USED

More than 30% of the selected New
Economy companies use 360 Degree performance appraisal method and Management
by Objective. Approximately 25% of the companies use the Human Resource
accounting method.

AWARENESS OF 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD

30% of the appraisers are aware of the
720 Degree performance appraisal method and only 8% of the employees are
aware of 720 Degree performance appraisal method. Most of the employees and
appraisers are not aware of the 720 degree performance appraisal method.

 EMPLOYEES
APPRAISED OWN PERFORMANCE

Approximately 61% of the employees
have appraised their own performance in their career and were able to
evaluate their career graph. Employees are able to appraise their own
performance effectively.

 EMPLOYEE APPRAISE OTHER
EMPLOYEES

75% of the appraisers stated that
employees will be able to appraise other employees effectively. 75% of the
appraisers consider that the employees who come in contact with the other
employees will be able to appraise them better as they work together and will
be able to evaluate each other in different levels. Appraisers state that
employees will be able to appraise other employee performance effectively.

INFLUENCE – PERSONAL BIASES

68% of the employees stated that
Personal bias and prejudice influenced their appraisal. Hence, it is
necessary to introduce an objective multi-dimensional appraisal method like
the 720 Degree performance appraisal method where personal bias cannot
influence the appraisal process.

DISADVANTAGES OF 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD

a) 85% of the appraisers consider that
720 Degree performance appraisal method is a time consuming process.
b) 10% of the appraisers consider that
the monetary requirement is higher for 720 Degree performance appraisal
method as appraisal/feedback has to be done twice.
 c) 5% of the appraisers consider that there
might be quality problem as all the 7 dimensions of appraisal in 720 Degree
performance appraisal method might not be accurate.
d) The appraisers consider the 720
Degree performance appraisal method as a time consuming

 IMPLEMENT 720 DEGREE
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD

55% of the appraisers stated that they
would like to implement the method and 45% were not interested.

720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD – IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

90% of the appraisers consider the 720
Degree performance appraisal method as an effective method and are positive
that implementation of this method would help to improve their performance.

SATISFIED – CURRENT APPRAISAL METHOD

80% of the employees stated that they
were not happy with the current appraisal method and would prefer the use of
a more effective method to measure their performance. Hence, it is necessary
to implement the 720 Degree performance appraisal method. Employee
respondents are not happy with the current appraisal methods used and hope
for a change for the better

 

 

 

CONCLUSION –

After the research on 720 degree
appraisal, we come on the conclusion that it should be a part of every
organization and not only in industries but in education institutions too.
Compared to any other appraisal system 720 degree performance appraisal is effective
and would be successful as it includes giving candid feedback and follow up.
The need of 720 degree appraisal is because this is an objective method that
cannot be influence by prejudice, personal bias and discrimination.  It increases transparency and and feeling of
treated justly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE

Each employee is to be appraised on each of the
following performance factors using the following ratings:

5 pts – Consistently Exceeds Expectations
Employee displays at all
time, without exception, a consistently high level of factor related skills, abilities, initiative,
and productivity. All assignments/responsibilities are completed beyond the level of expectation. Initiative and
self-direction are characteristic.?(5pts)

4 pts –Often Exceeds Expectations Employee
displays a high level of factor related skills, abilities, initiative, and productivity, exceeding
requirements in some areas, but not consistently or not without exception.?(4pts)

3 pts – Meets Expectations Employee displays and
maintains an
effective and consistent level of performance of the job factor under review. Work
output regularly achieves desired or required outcomes or expectations.?Problems or errors are reported and corrected
quickly. ( 3pts)

2 pts – Some Improvement Needed Employee at this
level displays
inconsistency in the performance of the job factor under review and output frequently falls below
acceptable levels.?Tasks may be significantly late at times or
incomplete, with serious or potentially serious consequences. (2pts)

1 pt — Major Improvement Needed Work output is consistently low,
regularly fails to meet required outcomes, and error rate is high requiring repetition of duty or
completion by others.?The employee may require constant supervision,
and show an indifference to job responsibilities. (1 pt)

 

II. SUPERVISORY FACTORS: If the employee being
evaluated is a supervisor, these are the performance factors.

1.     
LEADERSHIP ABILITY

2.     
APPRAISAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE

3.     
PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION

4.     
COMMUNICATION SKILLS

 

 

RATING SUMMARY:

PERFORMANCE?(Points assigned for each
factor)
 

Major Improvement Needed
 

Some Improvement Needed
 

Meets Expectations
 

Often Exceeds Expectations
 

Consistently Exceeds Expectations
 

Grand Total
 

QUALITY OF WORK

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRODUCTIVITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

KNOWLEDGE OF JOB

 

 

 

 

 

 

ADAPTABILITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEPENDABILITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

INITIATIVE AND RESOURCEFULNESS

 

 

 

 

 

 

JUDGEMENT AND POLICY COMPLIANCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

RELATIONSHIP WITH CUSTOMERS

 

 

 

 

 

 

ATTENDANCE AND PUNCTUALITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAFETY AND SECURITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEADERSHIP ABILITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPRAISAL AND DEVELOPMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLANNING AND ORGANISATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

 

 

 

 

 

 

RATING TOOLS