AbstractThe use of busesand shuttles in transport industry is widelyused in Kenya and other countries.

The current manual reservation of bustickets is very strenuous, tedious andtiresome. It is also time-consuming dueto long queues in the process of getting the tickets and record keeping was ahazard.The online busticketing systems were introduced to solve the above-mentionedproblems. Despite the many online bus ticketing systems available, they are not widely used. The most obvious reasonbeing it’s boring and tiresome to go thesite of each individual bus company tomake a reservation. For this reason and android bus ticketing system will solvethe strenuous, tedious and tiresome processof going from one site to another in order tomake a reservation.The proposed system runs an android device which is widely used. It will be developed using Java, and Php and willuse MYSQL database.

The users will install the app on their phones. Whenever theywant to buy a ticket and make a reservation, they open the app, select theirdestination and source of their journey, check the available car and the seat, pickthe seat they want from those available, and then make a payment. It willalso have a web application for the admin to update bus details including buscompany names, route and bus fare.

KEYWORDS: Android, Java, php and MYSQL                                                                                                                                              CHAPTER ONE1         INTRODUCTIONMobile application development is the set of processes andprocedures involved in writing software for small, wireless computing devicessuch as smartphones or tablets (Rouse, 2011). Computertechnology or information technology (IT) isable to collaborate with many other disciplines (Abdillah, Syafei, , 2007). One of the most progressiveapplications on IT recently is mobiletechnology.

Mobile phones are not only used as a medium to communicate to phoneand SMS only, but can be used as a medium to communicate directly with theinternet to send and receive data. This led to high interest in smartphones.1.1        Background InformationThe Online BusTicket Reservation System is a web-based application that allows visitors checkbus ticket availability, buy a bus ticketand pay the bus ticket online (Asaad, Ayad, andHayder, 2012).

This system was established for all the home/office users aftergaining access from the administrator. According to Invaderzim (2011), OnlineBus Reservation System provides bus transportation system, a facility to reserved seats, cancellation of seats anddifferent types of inquiry which need aninstant and quick reservation. This system can be used by the users inperforming online reservation via internet for their all business purposes.Users can use this program directly on their websites and no need to installit.The use of bustraveling is a large growing business in Nigeria and other countries; hence busreservation system deals with maintenance of records of each passenger who hadreserved a seat for a journey (Alaya,S. M. ,2014)..

It also includes maintenance of informationlike schedule and details of each bus (Shivaji, 2010). Also, we get to knowthat there are many operations, which they have to do manually. It takes a lotof time and causes many errors. Due to this, sometimes a lot of problems occurand they were also facing many disputes with customers. To solve the aboveproblem, and further maintaining records of items, seat availability forcustomers, the price of per seat, billgeneration and other things there is a needfor a new system.However, since the current reservation system is stillconducted manually and separately at each branch, contact must be made by eachbranch’s front-office to the head office for each customer’s enquiry in orderto get the latest update on schedule, seat availability and other reservation-relatedinformation; as well as to avoid duplicate bookings or over-capacity.

There is also a physical limit to the reservation availability as each branchonly operates during certain hours and reservations can only be madeon-the-spot. These limitations are not the only issues the company is currentlyfacing. Other factors that create problems include human errors (e.g.miscalculations in ticket price, mistakes in noting passenger data, etc.), thefluctuation of passengers during certain periods of time that causes abottleneck in the check-in process because of the inability of the front officer to multitask and the lack of overview orreport of the on-going business; making it difficult for the company to judgepast/current performance or plan future improvements. Looking at these problemsand limitations, it is clear that both the company and the customers require anintegrated reservation system that is more efficient in information update andreservation handling and also easy to use.

Electronic tickets, or e-tickets,give evidence that their holders have permission to enter a place ofentertainment, use a means of transportation, or have access to some internetservices. Bus Ticket Reservation System enables the customer to buy bus ticket,make payment, and ask for information online easily. Furthermore, staff cansell bus ticket using Bus Ticket Reservation System after check bus ticketavailability for the customer and print the bus ticket to the customer thatqueue up in the counter. The method to solve this problem is to create anandroid bus ticket system. The customer can buythe bus ticket over the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and the busticket can’t be lost, stolen or left behind.

In addition, the online systemlets the customers check the availability of the bus ticket before they buy a busticket (Wee, 2007). This study,therefore, proposes to develop the Androidbus ticketing system in Kenya1.2         Problem statementRoad transportis the major means of transportation in most developing countrieswith the use of buses and shuttles being mostlyused. The manual systems in place are mostlymanual where the passenger goes to the booking office, gets into a queue toobtain a ticket after paying the fare. Record keeping is also a challenge inthe manual systems. The growth in transportation industry has led to rise inthe number of bus companies available for any two destinations.

Due todifferent user preferences having all this available bus companies with theirbus fare details in one application will make it easier for our diverse usersacross the country. 1.3         Objectives of the study1.3.

1        General objectiveIn view of problems stated above, this project is aimed at implementation of an android phoneapp that lets you view available bus to your destination, the seat availability,reserve a seat at the comfort of your home.1.3.2        Specific objectivesØ To increase efficiency in booking tickets.Ø To ensure up to date information that wouldn’tbe possible manually.

1.4        Scope and boundaryThis projectwill develop an android app that will allow the passenger to check if the busesto your destination are available, it will also let user select a bus from a list of available then displays the available free seats. User can thenmake a selection after which the amountyou are required to pay will be computed.

From here the user can go ahead and pay the fare.The app will target people within any age bracket provided they have access toa mobile device that runs on Android operatingsystem.1.

5        JustificationThis project is conducted because there is really a lot of paperwork when making areservation. The current system requires the customer to go to their bookingoffices and sometimes during the peak seasons like over the December holidaysthere are a lot of passengers in the booking office making customers wait in a longqueue to acquire the ticket. This processis tiresome and boring.

This new systemwill try to reduce the paperwork and queuing of passengers CHAPTER TWO2         LITERATURE REVIEW2.1        Introduction to bus ticketing systemsPublic transportation has been classified as an essential mode oftravelling. In older days, human travels from one location to another takesmonths and years, with less support of technology and communication tools.Currently, with the effective and efficient mode of transportation, one couldtravel thousands of miles with hours and days and communicate across the globewithin split of seconds. Public in many countries, especially in the thirdworld, prefer to use buses and train services to travel from one location toanother. “Electronic ticketing system is the ticketing system which usesself-service technology as a base of application helping the user to book aticket by themselves” (Ferreira, Porfírio, Cunha, & Silva, 2013).

Recently, with the introduction and evolution of smartphonesapplications, the consumers’ behavioral habits have changed in the goods andservices purchasing power. Consumers’ on-line purchases using mobileapplication had increasing globally, without boundaries. Consumers’ or the publicpopulation, in current age, can purchase their transport ticket through mobilephone and pay on-line to book, validate and retrieve tickets using simplemobile applications (Ceipidor et al., 2013).

The consumer’s application andusage of mobile phones have expended tremendously from a single purpose usage,namely communication purposes, to multiple usage such as gaming, music,navigating and many more. Approximately, there are around 370 thousand mobilephone application that can be utilized by consumers’ and 425 thousand Androidplatform application available for Apple customers (Böhmer, Hecht, Schöning,Krüger, & Bauer, 2011). People start to spend more time on mobile devices than desktopand laptops (Meeker, 2015). Indeed, mobile devices (e.g., smartphone and tabletPC) are increasingly becoming an essential part of Iraqis’ as the mosteffective and convenient communication tools not bounded by time and place(Jarad, 2014).

Using a mobile phone for making reservation systems is theeasiest and convenient way to perform this task.2.2         Examples of bus ticketing systems2.

2.1.     Online bus ticketing systemThe online Bus ticketing system web portal is a totalinternet ticketing operations offering the benefit of overall in-housemanagement of bus schedules, ticket bookings, ticket sales, report generation,and other business functions associated with ticket sales (Melisa, 2007).

There are manyof such systems available in use nowadays.       i.           Robustand secure online bus ticket reservation system  (N.Sendil Kumar, A.Geetha and A.Gopikrishna,2015)This systempermits guest to check transport accessibility, purchase and pay ticket on theweb.

It performs a number of activities:-•It guaranteed information precision.•Records are productively kept up by database.•Availability of seats can be enquired effortlessly.•Passengers can likewise wipe out their tickets effortlessly.•Minimum time required for the different preparing.•It gives better Service compared the manual systems that were in place earlier.      ii.           Developmentof an online bus ticket reservation system for a transportation service inNigeria ( Oloyede M.

O, Alaya S. M, K.S, 2014)•Theuser can search for the seat•The user can sign up/do registration with the system•The registered user can login to the proposed system•The user can check for the available seat•The user can also do payment for the seat on the proposed system•The user can print receipt on the system as evidence of paymentAdministrator Activitiesinclude•The administrator will verify all the registered user, and allow them to loginto the system•The administrator give acknowledge to any payment user made on the system•The administrator can add vehicle, driver and generate report as wellThesystem requires simple resources and works on all configurations. It has thefollowing features • It ensures data accuracy.• Records are efficientlymaintained by database.• Availability of seats can beenquired easily.• Passengers can also cancel theirtickets easily.

• Minimum time needed for thevarious processing.•It provide better Service compared to the manual systems.Thissystem greatly improved the transport industry.Withthe rapid increase in use of mobile devices that run on android operatingsystem, there is need for the android based bus ticketing system. 2.

2.2.     Mobile-basedticketing system                                              This is the use of an application installed onyour mobile device to make a bus reservation. With the increasing use of mobiletechnology, mobile-based bus ticketing system will come in handy. i)                   Android-BasedBus Ticket Reservation Application by Fitriani, Leon Andretti Abdillah, DeniErlansyahThisapplication was designed to have an android application and a web application.The mobile application enables the passenger to browse, book the bus schedule,and choose where they would like to sit in the bus. The web application is foradmin to maintain the data of bus ticket reservations ii)                 MOBILE – BASED BUS TICKETING SYSTEM INIRAQ by  AhmedK.

Ibrahim and Azman B Ta’aThe system wasdesigned to have four actors who will interactwith the application. Firstly, passengers who will book the ticket, theapplication will allow the passenger to access, search and check bus ticketavailability over the internet 24 hours a day, seven days a week in theirmobile after installing the application. In addition, passengers can book thebus ticket.Secondly, Admin who will control and check whole the system, admincan add/edit/delete bus, route, destination and so on.

However, admin candistribute accounts for the driver to allow them access to the system and forthe guards as well. Thirdly, a driver who will drive the bus, his privilegeless than the admin. The driver can only check his trip, the bus number that itwill ride it, besides that he can see the passenger’s lists for a specifictrip. Lastly, guard his privilege same with the driver only check the trips andsee the passenger’s lists.

Both the onlineand mobile based ticketing systems were developed to solve the challenges that were faced during the use of manual ticketingsystem which included:-Ø  Long queues by passengerswhen buying a bus ticket or asking information for buses schedule Ø  Physical limit to thereservation availability as each branch only operates during certain hours andreservations can just be madeon-the-spot.Ø  Human errors (e.g.

, miscalculations in ticket price,mistakes in noting passenger data, etc.)2.3         SummaryThe proposedsystem is mobile application that will run on android operating system. Thereare many bus companies in Kenya and its tedious moving from one application tothe other when you want to inquire about a certain bus company.

The proposedsystem will bring all the bus companies in one application so the user doesn’thave to switch between applications when making enquiries.  It will have a web application which willused by admin to update fare and add/delete a bus company, a bus and a route. Userwill also able to view reports concerning the travels in a certain duration. Theandroid bus ticketing system will use the waterfall software development model.This model is the most appropriate since it favors more agile methodologies andeach phase must be completed before moving on tothe next, and there is nooverlapping of stages during the softwarelife cycle. It illustrates the software development in a sequential flow.   CHAPTER THREE3         RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1        Data Collection techniques and ParticipantsThiscase study will obtain data from various shuttle companies all over thecountry.

The participants will include passengers, drivers, bus owners and thestaff working at various bus companies.The opinions will then be analyzed to show if there is a need for a new system and the major challenges of the existing bus ticketingprocedures. The following methods will be used to collect data;3.1.1       InterviewsStructuredoral questions will be used to obtain data about the current process in busticketing sector, from the selected respondents. Also, a handful of staff in some of the bus companies will be interviewed. This method will provide first-hand quality data.

In case a respondent does not understand the question, theresearcher can expound more on the subject.Its limitation is that it will be time-consuming.3.1.2       ObservationsRoutineactivities in various bus companies will be observed to identify how services are offered to the passengers.3.1.3       Document Review Thiswill involve obtaining data from already existing sources on the informationabout existing bus ticketing systems.

3.2        Analysis and design tools3.2.1       FlowchartsA flowchart is a pictorialrepresentation of operation flow of a program to arrive at the solution. 3.2.2       Data flow diagramIt is agraphical representation of data in a system.

3.2.3       Use-case diagramUse case diagrams are behavior diagrams which are used to define a set ofactions that system should or can perform in collaboration with one or moreexternal users of the system (actors). Each use case should provide some observable and valuable result to the actors orother stakeholders of the system.3.3        System implementation tools/techniquesMySQL Relational DatabaseMySQL will be used as a database atthe web server. It will store a varietyof things that will be used by the application. Thisincludes login details, the information on routes, buses, and ticket and seatavailability.

JavaIt will be used to implement the classes theapplication will use. Android Studio IDEwill be used during implementationPHPPHP will be used as the server- side script language to link theinterface and the database. It will always fetch data from the database. REFERENCESVarma, S.

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