The use of buses
and shuttles in transport industry is widely
used in Kenya and other countries. The current manual reservation of bus
tickets is very strenuous, tedious and
tiresome. It is also time-consuming due
to long queues in the process of getting the tickets and record keeping was a

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The online bus
ticketing systems were introduced to solve the above-mentioned
problems. Despite the many online bus ticketing systems available, they are not widely used. The most obvious reason
being it’s boring and tiresome to go the
site of each individual bus company to
make a reservation. For this reason and android bus ticketing system will solve
the strenuous, tedious and tiresome process
of going from one site to another in order to
make a reservation.

The proposed system runs an android device which is widely used. It will be developed using Java, and Php and will
use MYSQL database. The users will install the app on their phones. Whenever they
want to buy a ticket and make a reservation, they open the app, select their
destination and source of their journey, check the available car and the seat, pick
the seat they want from those available, and then make a payment. It will
also have a web application for the admin to update bus details including bus
company names, route and bus fare.

KEYWORDS: Android, Java, php and MYSQL











Mobile application development is the set of processes and
procedures involved in writing software for small, wireless computing devices
such as smartphones or tablets (Rouse, 2011). Computer
technology or information technology (IT) is
able to collaborate with many other disciplines (Abdillah, Syafei, &
Hardiyansyah, 2007). One of the most progressive
applications on IT recently is mobile
technology. Mobile phones are not only used as a medium to communicate to phone
and SMS only, but can be used as a medium to communicate directly with the
internet to send and receive data. This led to high interest in smartphones.

Background Information

The Online Bus
Ticket Reservation System is a web-based application that allows visitors check
bus ticket availability, buy a bus ticket
and pay the bus ticket online (Asaad, Ayad, and
Hayder, 2012). This system was established for all the home/office users after
gaining access from the administrator. According to Invaderzim (2011), Online
Bus Reservation System provides bus transportation system, a facility to reserved seats, cancellation of seats and
different types of inquiry which need an
instant and quick reservation. This system can be used by the users in
performing online reservation via internet for their all business purposes.
Users can use this program directly on their websites and no need to install

The use of bus
traveling is a large growing business in Nigeria and other countries; hence bus
reservation system deals with maintenance of records of each passenger who had
reserved a seat for a journey (Alaya,
S. M. ,2014).. It also includes maintenance of information
like schedule and details of each bus (Shivaji, 2010). Also, we get to know
that there are many operations, which they have to do manually. It takes a lot
of time and causes many errors. Due to this, sometimes a lot of problems occur
and they were also facing many disputes with customers. To solve the above
problem, and further maintaining records of items, seat availability for
customers, the price of per seat, bill
generation and other things there is a need
for a new system.

However, since the current reservation system is still
conducted manually and separately at each branch, contact must be made by each
branch’s front-office to the head office for each customer’s enquiry in order
to get the latest update on schedule, seat availability and other reservation-related
information; as well as to avoid duplicate bookings or over-capacity.
There is also a physical limit to the reservation availability as each branch
only operates during certain hours and reservations can only be made
on-the-spot. These limitations are not the only issues the company is currently
facing. Other factors that create problems include human errors (e.g.
miscalculations in ticket price, mistakes in noting passenger data, etc.), the
fluctuation of passengers during certain periods of time that causes a
bottleneck in the check-in process because of the inability of the front officer to multitask and the lack of overview or
report of the on-going business; making it difficult for the company to judge
past/current performance or plan future improvements. Looking at these problems
and limitations, it is clear that both the company and the customers require an
integrated reservation system that is more efficient in information update and
reservation handling and also easy to use. Electronic tickets, or e-tickets,
give evidence that their holders have permission to enter a place of
entertainment, use a means of transportation, or have access to some internet
services. Bus Ticket Reservation System enables the customer to buy bus ticket,
make payment, and ask for information online easily. Furthermore, staff can
sell bus ticket using Bus Ticket Reservation System after check bus ticket
availability for the customer and print the bus ticket to the customer that
queue up in the counter. The method to solve this problem is to create an
android bus ticket system. The customer can buy
the bus ticket over the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and the bus
ticket can’t be lost, stolen or left behind. In addition, the online system
lets the customers check the availability of the bus ticket before they buy a bus
ticket (Wee, 2007).

This study,
therefore, proposes to develop the Android
bus ticketing system in Kenya

 Problem statement

Road transport
is the major means of transportation in most developing countries
with the use of buses and shuttles being mostly
used. The manual systems in place are mostly
manual where the passenger goes to the booking office, gets into a queue to
obtain a ticket after paying the fare. Record keeping is also a challenge in
the manual systems. The growth in transportation industry has led to rise in
the number of bus companies available for any two destinations. Due to
different user preferences having all this available bus companies with their
bus fare details in one application will make it easier for our diverse users
across the country.

 Objectives of the study

 General objective

In view of problems stated above, this project is aimed at implementation of an android phone
app that lets you view available bus to your destination, the seat availability,
reserve a seat at the comfort of your home.

 Specific objectives

To increase efficiency in booking tickets.

To ensure up to date information that wouldn’t
be possible manually.

Scope and boundary

This project
will develop an android app that will allow the passenger to check if the buses
to your destination are available, it will also let user select a bus from a list of available then displays the available free seats. User can then
make a selection after which the amount
you are required to pay will be computed.
From here the user can go ahead and pay the fare.
The app will target people within any age bracket provided they have access to
a mobile device that runs on Android operating


This project is conducted because there is really a lot of paperwork when making a
reservation. The current system requires the customer to go to their booking
offices and sometimes during the peak seasons like over the December holidays
there are a lot of passengers in the booking office making customers wait in a long
queue to acquire the ticket. This process
is tiresome and boring.

This new system
will try to reduce the paperwork and queuing of passengers




Introduction to bus ticketing systems

Public transportation has been classified as an essential mode of
travelling. In older days, human travels from one location to another takes
months and years, with less support of technology and communication tools.
Currently, with the effective and efficient mode of transportation, one could
travel thousands of miles with hours and days and communicate across the globe
within split of seconds. Public in many countries, especially in the third
world, prefer to use buses and train services to travel from one location to
another. “Electronic ticketing system is the ticketing system which uses
self-service technology as a base of application helping the user to book a
ticket by themselves” (Ferreira, Porfírio, Cunha, & Silva, 2013).

Recently, with the introduction and evolution of smartphones
applications, the consumers’ behavioral habits have changed in the goods and
services purchasing power. Consumers’ on-line purchases using mobile
application had increasing globally, without boundaries. Consumers’ or the public
population, in current age, can purchase their transport ticket through mobile
phone and pay on-line to book, validate and retrieve tickets using simple
mobile applications (Ceipidor et al., 2013). The consumer’s application and
usage of mobile phones have expended tremendously from a single purpose usage,
namely communication purposes, to multiple usage such as gaming, music,
navigating and many more. Approximately, there are around 370 thousand mobile
phone application that can be utilized by consumers’ and 425 thousand Android
platform application available for Apple customers (Böhmer, Hecht, Schöning,
Krüger, & Bauer, 2011). People start to spend more time on mobile devices than desktop
and laptops (Meeker, 2015). Indeed, mobile devices (e.g., smartphone and tablet
PC) are increasingly becoming an essential part of Iraqis’ as the most
effective and convenient communication tools not bounded by time and place
(Jarad, 2014). Using a mobile phone for making reservation systems is the
easiest and convenient way to perform this task.

 Examples of bus ticketing systems

Online bus ticketing system

The online Bus ticketing system web portal is a total
internet ticketing operations offering the benefit of overall in-house
management of bus schedules, ticket bookings, ticket sales, report generation,
and other business functions associated with ticket sales (Melisa, 2007).

There are many
of such systems available in use nowadays.

and secure online bus ticket reservation system  (N.Sendil Kumar, A.Geetha and A.Gopikrishna,

This system
permits guest to check transport accessibility, purchase and pay ticket on the
web. It performs a number of activities:-

It guaranteed information precision.

Records are productively kept up by database.

Availability of seats can be enquired effortlessly.

Passengers can likewise wipe out their tickets effortlessly.

Minimum time required for the different preparing.

It gives better Service compared the manual systems that were in place earlier.

of an online bus ticket reservation system for a transportation service in
Nigeria ( Oloyede M. O, Alaya S. M, &
Adewole K.S, 2014)

user can search for the seat

The user can sign up/do registration with the system

The registered user can login to the proposed system

The user can check for the available seat

The user can also do payment for the seat on the proposed system

The user can print receipt on the system as evidence of payment

Administrator Activities

The administrator will verify all the registered user, and allow them to login
to the system

The administrator give acknowledge to any payment user made on the system

The administrator can add vehicle, driver and generate report as well

system requires simple resources and works on all configurations. It has the
following features

• It ensures data accuracy.

• Records are efficiently
maintained by database.

• Availability of seats can be
enquired easily.

• Passengers can also cancel their
tickets easily.

• Minimum time needed for the
various processing.

It provide better Service compared to the manual systems.

system greatly improved the transport industry.

the rapid increase in use of mobile devices that run on android operating
system, there is need for the android based bus ticketing system.

ticketing system                                             

This is the use of an application installed on
your mobile device to make a bus reservation. With the increasing use of mobile
technology, mobile-based bus ticketing system will come in handy.

Bus Ticket Reservation Application by Fitriani, Leon Andretti Abdillah, Deni

application was designed to have an android application and a web application.
The mobile application enables the passenger to browse, book the bus schedule,
and choose where they would like to sit in the bus. The web application is for
admin to maintain the data of bus ticket reservations


IRAQ by  Ahmed
K. Ibrahim and Azman B Ta’a

The system was
designed to have four actors who will interact
with the application. Firstly, passengers who will book the ticket, the
application will allow the passenger to access, search and check bus ticket
availability over the internet 24 hours a day, seven days a week in their
mobile after installing the application. In addition, passengers can book the
bus ticket.Secondly, Admin who will control and check whole the system, admin
can add/edit/delete bus, route, destination and so on. However, admin can
distribute accounts for the driver to allow them access to the system and for
the guards as well. Thirdly, a driver who will drive the bus, his privilege
less than the admin. The driver can only check his trip, the bus number that it
will ride it, besides that he can see the passenger’s lists for a specific
trip. Lastly, guard his privilege same with the driver only check the trips and
see the passenger’s lists.

Both the online
and mobile based ticketing systems were developed to solve the challenges that were faced during the use of manual ticketing
system which included:-

Ø  Long queues by passengers
when buying a bus ticket or asking information for buses schedule

Ø  Physical limit to the
reservation availability as each branch only operates during certain hours and
reservations can just be made

Ø  Human errors (e.g., miscalculations in ticket price,
mistakes in noting passenger data, etc.)


The proposed
system is mobile application that will run on android operating system. There
are many bus companies in Kenya and its tedious moving from one application to
the other when you want to inquire about a certain bus company. The proposed
system will bring all the bus companies in one application so the user doesn’t
have to switch between applications when making enquiries.  It will have a web application which will
used by admin to update fare and add/delete a bus company, a bus and a route. User
will also able to view reports concerning the travels in a certain duration.

android bus ticketing system will use the waterfall software development model.
This model is the most appropriate since it favors more agile methodologies and
each phase must be completed before moving on to
the next, and there is no
overlapping of stages during the software
life cycle. It illustrates the software development in a sequential flow.






Data Collection techniques and Participants

case study will obtain data from various shuttle companies all over the
country. The participants will include passengers, drivers, bus owners and the
staff working at various bus companies.
The opinions will then be analyzed to show if there is a need for a new system and the major challenges of the existing bus ticketing
procedures. The following methods will be used to collect data;


oral questions will be used to obtain data about the current process in bus
ticketing sector, from the selected respondents. Also, a handful of staff in some of the bus companies will be interviewed. This method will provide first-hand quality data. In case a respondent does not understand the question, the
researcher can expound more on the subject.
Its limitation is that it will be time-consuming.


activities in various bus companies will be observed to identify how services are offered to the passengers.

Document Review

will involve obtaining data from already existing sources on the information
about existing bus ticketing systems.

Analysis and design tools


A flowchart is a pictorial
representation of operation flow of a program to arrive at the solution.

Data flow diagram

It is a
graphical representation of data in a system.

Use-case diagram

Use case diagrams are behavior diagrams which are used to define a set of
actions that system should or can perform in collaboration with one or more
external users of the system (actors). Each use case should provide some observable and valuable result to the actors or
other stakeholders of the system.

System implementation tools/techniques

MySQL Relational Database

MySQL will be used as a database at
the web server. It will store a variety
of things that will be used by the application. This
includes login details, the information on routes, buses, and ticket and seat


It will be used to implement the classes the
application will use. Android Studio IDE
will be used during implementation


PHP will be used as the server- side script language to link the
interface and the database. It will always fetch data from the database.



Varma, S., & VARMA, S. (2017). Bus Reservation
System · Shivaji Varma. Shivaji Varma. Retrieved 20th December
2017, from http://shivajivarma.com/project/bus-reservation-system/

Invaderzim, (2011).Online Bus Reservation System. Retrieved
from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Bus-Reservation-System-741084.html
Accessed 20th September 2017

What is mobile application development? – Definition from
WhatIs.com. (2017). Margaret Rouse (2011).
Retrieved 19 December 2017, from http://searchmicroservices.techtarget.com/definition/mobile-application-development

Development Of An Online Bus Ticket Reservation System For
… (n.d.). Retrieved on 9th October 2017, from

Mobile Based Bus Ticketing System In Iraq Ahmed K. Ibrahim
… (n.d.). Retrieved on 10th October 2017, from http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Mobile—–Based-Bus-Ticketing-Syst

Analysis & Design Tools. (2017). www.tutorialspoint.com. Retrieved 19
December 2017, from


Collection Techniques | CYFAR. (2017). Cyfar.org. Retrieved 8th December
2017, from https://cyfar.org/data-collection-techniques

Böhmer, M., Hecht, B., Schöning, J., Krüger, A., &
Bauer, G. (2011). Falling asleep with Angry Birds, Facebook and Kindle – A
Large Scale Study on Mobile Application Usage. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer
Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services – MobileHCI ’11, 47. http://doi.org/10.1145/2037373.2037383

Ceipidor, U. B., Medaglia, C. M., Marino, a., Morena, M.,
Sposato, S., Moroni, a., … Morgia, M. La. (2013). Mobile ticketing with NFC
management for transport companies. Problems and solutions. 2013 5th International Workshop on Near
Field Communication, NFC 2013. http://doi.org/10.1109/NFC.2013.6482446

Ferreira, J. C., Porfírio, F., Cunha, G., & Silva, J.
(2013). Cloud terminals for ticketing systems. SERVICE COMPUTATION 2013 : The Fifth International Conferences on
Advanced Service Computing, 7.

Jarad, G. A. (2014). The Potential of developing Iraq
smartphone market as an emerging and lucrative market, 2(2), 37–42.

Meeker, M. (2015). 2015 Internet Trends — Kleiner Perkins
Caufield Byers. Retrieved 6th October 2017, from http://www.kpcb.com/internet-trends


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