AbstractComputershave become an important part of life. We need computers everywhere, be it forwork, research or in any such field. As the use of computers in our daily lifeincreases, the computing resources that we need also go up.
As the computing resourcesincreases so does the problems that comes with it such as machines failure andsoftware bugs etc. Cloud computing offers a solution to this situation. As itincreases the efficiency of the users of any field by providing them servicesthrough which the recourses are shared over the internet. The purpose of thisresearch is to describe the usage of cloud computing by the users of any fieldand also to find out why they choose cloud computing and how it has made theirlives easier. The main aim of this report is to know the users satisfactionlevel through the use of cloud computing. Survey is the methodology we used toget information from the participants of any field. The results shows thatcloud computing has a positive impact on the participants of any field.
Howeverit has many advantages that are beneficial but has some limitations to it. 1.0 -IntroductionDueto the technological advancement in the field of Information Technology (IT).
Onlinetechnologies have changed the way of learning. Cloud is a term used as ametaphor for the wide area networks (like internet) or any such large networkedenvironment. Cloud computing is a way in which services are being provided tothe users through the internet where they can store their data and information.Cloud consists of large number of computers that are interconnected through ahuge network either located in same or different geographical locations,operating together to serve a number of customers with different needs withhelp of virtualization.
Cloud services are provided to the cloud users asutility services like water, electricity and telephone using pay-as-you-usebusiness model. Cloud users use these services provided by the cloud providers fromthere build their applications in the internet and thus deliver them to theirend users. In this way the cloud users don’t have to worry about installing ormaintaining physical hardware and software needed for its use, and also allowusers to reduce their expenditure in the field of IT using or maintaining theirown cloud services they can use already made cloud services that are provided..Though it is not a new idea that emerged just recently. In 1969 1 L.
Kleinrock anticipated, “As of now, computer networks are still in their infancy. Butas they grow up and become more sophisticated, we will probably see the spreadof ‘computer utilities’ which, like present electric and telephone utilities,will service individual homes and offices across the country.” Inbrief main aim of cloud computing is to provide storage or hosting services suchas online data storage and backup solutions that are inexpensive over a largenetwork. In recent year’s organizations and other fields such as education,health and telecommunications etc. are concentrating more on using cloudservices due to its accessibility of virtualized resources.Therefore,the aim of this research is to present, not only the use or services offered bythe cloud in any field but also how cloud computing is perceived by them.
Itdiscussed why there is a need for cloud computing in near future. It also talksabout the user’s opinion towards the usage of cloud computing in terms to theirpersonal preferences and satisfaction. Chapter 1: Basics of Cloud ComputingBefore investigating the usage of cloud computing,it is important to know the types of clouds, the services it provides and theapplications that can be used by the users. .. .. … … …… … … .
. ..The model for connecting the systems and softwareneeded it to work are not fully defined at the moment, leaving manyorganizations to make their own cloud technologies, e.g.: IBM “Blue Cloud”technologies are based on open standards and open source software which linkcompanies together to provide Web 2.
0 capabilities like mash-ups or mobilecommerce. .. .. … … … … … … .. .
. 1.1 What is Cloud Computing?The common term for the delivery of hosted servicesover internet is called cloud computing.
It enables the companies to fullyutilize a resource, such as storage or an application, as an advantage rather thanhaving to build and maintain computing equipment in a house. .The word “cloud” is used a metaphor for “internet”,so the expression cloud computing means “a type of internet based computing”.
The cloud infrastructure is maintained by the provider not the customer. .. .. … … … … … … .. .
.It has obtained mass appeal in business as itenables their data center to operate like the internet throughout the processof enabling computing resources to be accessed and shared. Small businesses canaccess these resources and expand or shrink them as business needs change.
Third party clouds enable companies to focus on their core businesses insteadof spending on computer infrastructure and maintenance. The main aim of cloudcomputing is to allow users to benefit from all the technologies without theneed of extensive knowledge or expertise. ..
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.There are two types of cloud computing: Public andPrivate. The main difference between public and private is that public cloud isnot responsible for any of the management, whereas private cloud hosting isinside the company’s intranetand all the company’s data is protected by a firewall.
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. .. 1.2. What are components of Cloud Computing?Cloud computing is the deliveryof computing services—servers, storage, databases, networking, software,analytics and more—over the Internet (“the cloud”). Companies offering thesecomputing services are called cloud providers and typically charge for cloudcomputing services based on usage, similar to how you are billed for water orelectricity at home. Cloud is essentially provided by large distributed data centers.
These data centers are often organized as grid and the cloud is built on top ofthe grid services. Cloud users are provided with virtual images of the physicalmachines in the data centers. This virtualization is one of the key concept ofcloud computing as it essentially builds the abstraction over the physicalsystem. Many cloud applications are gaining popularity day by day for theiravailability, reliability, scalability and utility model. The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take benefit from allof these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertisewith each one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and helps the users focuson their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.The main enablingtechnology for cloud computing is virtualization. Virtualization softwareseparates a physical computing device into one or more “virtual”devices, each of which can be easily used and managed to perform computingtasks.
1.3 Types of cloudsThereare three types of clouds2PRIVATE:Private cloud services are delivered froma business’s data center to internal users. This model offers the versatilityand convenience of the cloud, while preserving the management, control andsecurity common to local data centers. Internal users may or may not be billedfor services through IT chargeback. PUBLICPublic cloud is what most people refer towhen they say “cloud computing.” It refers to a computing service model usedfor cloud storage and computation services to the general public over theinternet.
Moreover, you can access the IT resources on a “pay as you go”billing model. There are different advantages of both cloud computing systems. HYBRIDA hybrid cloud is acombination of public cloud services and an on-premises private cloud, withorchestration and automation between the two.
Thegoals of a hybrid cloud is to create a unified, automated, scalable environmentthat takes advantage of all that a public cloud infrastructure can provide,while still maintaining control over mission-critical data. 1.4 Demand and Need for Cloud Computing Whatcould we do with 1000 times more data and CPU power? One of the simple questionthat tells the important factor which on later becomes the basis or foundationon the use of cloud computing in near future.
As the amount of data that anapplication handles is increasing day by day and so is the CPU power that onecan harness. With this much CPU power in hand, we could scale our businesses to1000 times more users, monitor every single user interaction and gatherstatistics about the user. In this way we could improve the recommendationssystem of users.
We could model better price plan choices. There are lotsof other things we could do with so much CPU power and capabilities. But whatis holding us back.
One of the reasons is the large scale architecture what comeswith these are difficult to manage. There may be many different problems withthe architecture we have to support. The hardware of machine may start failing,the hard drives may crash, the network may go down and many other such problem.The hardware has to be designed such that the architecture is reliable and scalable.This large scale architecture has a very expensive upfront and has highmaintenance costs.
It requires different resources like machines, powercooling, etc. The system also cannot scale as and needed and so is not easilyreconfigurable. The resourcesare also constrained by the resources. As the applications become large, theybecome I/O bound. The hard drive access speed becomes a limiting factor. Thoughthe raw CPU power available may not be a factor, the amount of RAM availableclearly becomes a factor. This is also limited in this context.
If at all thehardware problems are managed very well, there arises the software problems.There may bebugs in the software using this much of data. The workload also demands twoimportant tasks for two completely different people.
The Software has to besuch that it is bug free and has good data processing algorithms to manage allthe data. The cloudcomputing works on the cloud – so there are large groups of often low-costservers with specialized connections to spread the data-processing chores amongthem. Since there are a lot of low-cost servers connected together, there arelarge pools of resources available.
So these offer almost unlimited computingresources. This makes the availability of resources a lesser issue. The data of theapplication can also be stored in the cloud. Storage of data in the cloud hasmany distinct advantages over other storages. One thing is that data is spreadevenly through the cloud in such a way that there are multiple copies of thedata and there are ways by which failure can be detected and the data can berebalanced on the fly. The I/O operations become simpler in the cloud such thatbrowsing and searching for something in 25GB or more of data becomes simpler inthe cloud, which is nearly impossible to do on a desktop.
The cloudcomputing applications also provide automatic reconfiguration of the resourcesbased on the service level agreements. When we are using applications out ofthe cloud, to scale the application with respect to the load is a mundane taskbecause the resources have to be gathered and then provided to the users. Ifthe load on the application is such that it is present only for a small amountof time as compared to the time its working out of the load, but occursfrequently, then scaling of the resources becomes tedious. But when theapplication is in the cloud, the load can be managed by spreading it to otheravailable nodes by making a copy of the application on to them. This can bereverted once the load goes down. It can be done as and when needed. All theseare done automatically such that the resources maintain and manage themselves. Chapter 2.
Cloud Computing Advantages &DisadvantagesNowadays manyorganizations and other fields such as education, health and Telecommunicationetc. are becoming more concerned with the storage of big data. Cloud computingplays an important role in the development of any field. Users of cloudcomputing have the opportunity to quickly access various application platformsand resources through web pages. There was a time when organizations used tospend lots of money in maintaining their own servers, which results in waste oftime and cost. There was a huge risk of data loss but the development of cloudcomputing helped organizations in various ways such as safety of data as it canbe easily stored and can be accessed. In spite of its many benefits, cloudcomputing also has its disadvantages 3,4.
2.1 Advantages:MinimumCostCloud computingis the most cost efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade. Traditionaldesktop software costs companies a lot in terms of finance. Adding up thelicensing fees for multiple users can prove to be very expensive for theestablishment concerned.
The cloud on the other hand, is available at much cheaperrates and hence, can significantly lower the company’s IT expenses. Besides,there are many onetime payment, pay as you go and other scalable optionsavailable, which makes it very reasonable for the company in question. UnlimitedStorageIt also provide tousers unlimited storage capacity.
Hence, they don’t have to worry about runningout of storage capacity. Backup& RecoveryCloud computinghelps to keep a backup of the data and information. Organizations can easilyaccessed the data through the service provided by cloud computing e.
g. Amazonweb services, Google App Engine etc. Since all the data is stored in the cloud,backing it up and restoring the same is relatively much easier than storing thesame on physical device. Hence, this makes the entire process of backup andrecovery much simpler than other traditional methods of data storage. EasyAccess to InformationOnce the users registerthemselves to the cloud, they can access the information from anywhere, wherethere is an internet connection. This convenient feature lets them move beyondtime zone and geographical location issues. 2.
2 DisadvantagesTechnicalIssuesThough it istrue that information and data on the cloud can be accessed anytime fromanywhere at all, there are times when this system can have serious dysfunction.Even the best cloud service providers run into this kind of trouble, in spiteof keeping up high standards of maintenance. The users can’t have access toinformation or data, if there is a lack of internet support i.e. work methodsof users could be affected due to lack of internet. Securityin CloudThe other majorissue in the cloud is that of security issues. Before adopting this technology,users’ needs to know that they are surrendering their sensitive information toa third party cloud service provider. This could potentially put them at highrisk.
Hence, they need to make sure to choose the most reliable cloud serviceprovider, who will keep their information totally secure. Proneto AttackStoringinformation in the cloud could make the company vulnerable to external hackattacks and threats. As they are well aware, nothing on the internet iscompletely secure and hence, there is always the lurking possibility of stealthof sensitive data.