According to human history, weight gain and fat storage were
viewed as signs of health and prosperity. Now a day, however, as living
standards continue to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world.
Now it is common that replacing the more traditional public
health concerns, such as changing nutrition and
infectious illness, as the most significant contributors to sick health.
Also, other chronic and non-infectious diseases
(NCDs) are an important risk factor in obesity in natural history, it is
only a matter of time before the same high mortality rates for such diseases
will be seen in developing countries as those prevailing 30 years ago in industrialized
countries with well-established of economies market. (1)
Diseases are the main leading cause of human death in the world and responsible
for 63% of the 57 million deaths that occurred in 2008. Globally, the leading
risk factors for mortality are raised blood pressure (responsible for 13% of deaths
globally), followed by tobacco use (9%), raised blood glucose (6%), physical inactivity
(6%), and also overweight and obesity (5%). (2).
and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the body
but is impracticable for epidemiological use. The body mass index
(weight/height2) is widely used in adult populations to assess overweight and
obesity. World Health Organization (WHO) defines overweight as a BMI equal to
or more than 25, and obesity as a BMI equal to or more than 30.1 The Western
Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended
lowering the BMI cut off levels for Asian people to 23.0 for overweight and
25.0 for obesity. (4)
food is a type
of any food product which in few essential nutrients value and in
calories and sodium. Junk food contains no or few protein, vitamins and
minerals but high in salt, sugar, fats and high calories high in refine
carbohydrate like candy highly salted like chips, soft drinks and highest of
saturated fats like cake and chocolate. (5)
A crude population
measure of obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI), a person’s weight (in
kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in meter). A person with
a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to
or more than 25 is considered overweight.
Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980.
weight and obesity are emerging non-communicable disease worldwide. In 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and
older, were overweight. Of these, over 600 million were obese. 39% of adults
aged 18 years and over were overweight in 2014, and 13% were obese. Most of the
world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more
people than underweight. 41 million children under the age of 5 were overweight
or obese in 2014.
Asian populations show more obesity related disorders than Ethnic Caucasians.
Prevalence of overweight in India is about 9.4% and of obesity is 2.4%. Highest
prevalence of overweight (17%) and obesity (3.8%) is seen in Kerala. As Indians
are genetically predisposed to weight gain, it is one of the biggest challenges
to overcome it.
Standards of BMI are used for the Asian population. (12, 13)
the risk of according to the Asian BMI
the figures specially prepared to the South Asian Countries.
World wide Range
18.50 – 24.99
17.50 – 22.99
25.00 – 29.99
23.00 – 27.99
30.00 < 28.00 < The study was conducted on 112 students. Out of them, 34 (30.4%) were males and 78 (60.6%) were females. Out of 112 students, they found that underweight students were 5 (4.5%), normal students were 65 (58%), overweight were 35 (31.3%) and obese were 7 (6.3%). They also found that, 4 (3.6%) were vegetarians, 29 (25.9%) were non-vegetarian and 79 (70.5%) were consuming mixed diet. It was observed that, 45 (40.2%) were doing exercise and 67 (59.8%) were not doing exercise. Out of 112 students, 17 (15.2%) students did exercise daily, 28 (25%) students did exercise regularly and 67 (59.8%) students? (7) Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. (8) People often neglect social implications of obesity and are seen to be hacked by lower self-esteem. (9) Over the past four decades it has been seen that, consumption of food other than home-made has risen alarmingly. Outside food are in large portion sizes and are rich in density which may lead to excess calorie intake and increases the risk of obesity. Children and youth are targeted towards and have sustained pattern of eating fast food and hence affected the most when compared to adults. (10) It has been seen in studies that most of the medical students have sedentary lifestyle with disordered eating habits and thereby are more prone to obesity and related health hazards. (11) Thus the present study aims to assess the BMI and the fast food habits of students of the Medical and Allied Sciences Students of J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, and to find out the association between them.