According to Terigan (1990:59), contrastive analysis is an activity to compare the structure of L1 with L2. This contrastive analysis is expected to help the learners of L2 to learn more easily.
To make it easier to understand the notion of contrastive analysis, we must understand the meaning of two words that arrange the phrase of contrastive analysis. Analysis is defined as a description that aims to know something and it is possible to find the core problem. While, Moeliono (1988:32) explains that contrastive is defined as the difference between two things and the word of contrastive is more well known in linguistics.Contrastive analysis is used in the teaching of the second language. It uses a comparison method in its application that is to compare between the different elements with the same elements. The main point of this contrastive analysis is focused on different linguistic elements.
According to Jie (2008:36), “Contrastive analysis stresses the influence of the mother tongue in learning a second language in phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactic levels. It holds that second language would be affected by first language”. There are many differences found in the linguistic structures between the mother tongue with the second language, for instance like Indonesian language with English language. This paper aims to know the differences between Indonesian language with English language.
It will discuss about the differences in both languages on morphology, syntax, and sociolinguistic levels. It will explain three language aspects in Indonesian language and English language to know the differences found in both languages. First, this paper will discuss about the term of plural. It will explain about the differences that occur in the idea of plural between Indonesian language and English language. Second, it will discuss about the comparison of passive sentence between Indonesian language and English language. Last, this paper will discuss about the comparison of gender orientation versus kinship orientation in Indonesian language and English language. 1. The Idea of Plurala.
Saya mempunyai sebuah bukuI have a bookb. Para mahasiswa (mahasiswa-mahasiswa) sedang belajar tentang ilmu bahasaStudents are studying about linguisticsc. Para wanita (wanita-wanita) memiliki sebuah kesempatan bekerja di kantorWomen have a chance working in officeFrom the examples above, we know that there are some differences in expressing the idea of plural in Indonesian language and English language. In English language, to show plural noun is by giving the suffix –s or –es on noun. While if there is a single noun, there are no sufix –s or –es before noun, but there are articles like a, an, and the before noun. In Indonesian language, like the examples above, the word of ‘students’ that shows the plural noun is translated as ‘para mahasiswa or mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. The word of ‘para’ has shown a plural noun in Indonesian language.
In addition, Indonesian people also often use the repetition of word to say the plural noun like ‘mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. Then, in English language, to refer ‘woman’ or ‘man’ in plural noun changes from woman to women and from man to men. 2. The Passive SentenceIn passive sentence, especially in English langauge, the subject of sentence refers to the actor of the action of the verb. Subject becomes the focus of the passive sentence.
While in Indonesian language, the focus of the passive sentence is the object of the sentence. It doesn’t occur in English language, except in relative clause not in passive sentence.a. My cat has been bought by TomiKucing saya sudah dibeli oleh TomiKucing saya sudah dibeli TomiKucing saya sudah Tomi belib. My book is borrowed by DianaBuku saya dipinjam oleh DianaBuku saya dipinjam DianaBuku saya Diana pinjamc.
The cake is not eaten by Devi Kue itu tidak dimakan oleh DeviKue itu tidak dimakan DeviKue itu tidak Devi makanTidak Devi makan kue ituPassive sentence is rarely used in speech, but it often finds in academic writing. In English language, passive voice sentence is formed from be + verb 3 (past particle). While in Indoneisan language, the structure of passive voice sentence is by adding di- before a verb (di + verb) such as dibeli, dipinjam, and dimakan.
. The examples above, for instance, are three passive sentences in English language. The form of passive sentence in the first example is has/have + been + V3 (has been bought). The first passive sentence in the example above can be translated in three different sructures of sentence in Indonesian language.
The passive sentence in Indonesian language ‘kucing saya sudah Tomi beli’ never occurs in the sentence structure of English language. The sentence does not match with the sentence structure of English language. Then, the form of passive voice sentence in the second example above is be + V3 (is borrowed). It can also be translated in Indonesian language by using three different structures of sentence.
Last, the form of negative sentence for passive sentence in the third example above is be + not +V3 (is not eaten). The sentence can be translated in Indonesian language by using four different structures of sentence. The sentence of ‘tidak Devi makan kue itu’ is never found in the sentence structure of English language. It will only occur in the sentence structure of Indonesian language.
In Indonesian language, it is still acceptable. 3. Gender versus Kinship Orientation? Gender Orientationa. Dia membeli sepatu di LondonShe buys a shoe in LondonHe buys a shoe in Londonb. Saya mencintainyaI love herI love himc. Anak itu sedang belajar matematikaThe boy is studying mathematicsThe girl is studying mathematicsd.
Anak saya suka makan appleMy son likes to eat an appleMy daughter likes to eat an applee. kakak saya sedang pergi ke BandungMy sister is going to BandungMy brother is going to BandungThe term of gender orientation is often used in English language. It is used in the form of pronoun, both subject and object. In English language, there are pronouns for subject and object based on gender orientation such as she, he, her, and him. While in Indonesian language, people use the word of “dia” referring to a single third person without paying attention what gender they have.
There are also many terms to differ subject in English language. One of them is used to differentiate siblings. In English language, there are words of “sister” and “brother” to differentiate male and female siblings in English language. There are also words to differ male and female child that are “son” and “daughter”. While in Indonesian language, the term of gender orientation is not used to distinguish between male and female. When talking about child, Indonesian people say “anak” that has referred to male and female child.
When talking about siblings, Indonesian people commonly say “kakak” or “adik” without referring what sex the siblings have. Thus, English people speak about sibling and child by using gender oriented language in their daily life.? Kinship Orientationa. Sari (she) is a beautiful teacherMbak Sari adalahseorang guru yang cantikNak Sari merupakan seorang guru yang cantikSaudari Sari merupakan seorang guru yang cantikb. Galih (he) is a head of social organization in societyPak Galih merupakan ketua organisasi sosial di masyarakatSaudara Galih merpakan ketua organisasi sosial di masyarakatIn Indonesian language, the term of kinship orientation is very well known.
It is often used in a conversation. The cultural background supports the terms of kinship orientation to be used by Indonesian people in a conversation and it creates a respectful relationship with others. If there is someone who has close and good relationship with us, we will treat him or her differently with someone who has no close relationship with us. In Indonesian language, the words of “Mbak, Nak, Pak, Saudara, and Saudari” show a politeness to respect others.
While in English language, kinship oriented language is never used in daily conversation.In conclusion, this paper discusses first about the explanation of what contrastive analysis is. There are some theories about contrastive analysis given by some experts. Second, this paper discusses about what language aspects used to differ between two languages, Indonesian and English language.
Third, it gives some examples of three language aspects of Indonesian and English language to find the differences between both languages. The three language aspects used as the examples above are the term of plural, the term of passive voice sentence, and the idea of gender and kinship orientation. The examples above can help learners of a second language to know the differences between the mother tongue and the second language easily. References:Igunadiputra. February 15, 2016.
“Metode Analisis Kontrastif.” Accessed on January 13, 2016.
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