Affirmation model by John Swain and Sally French in 2000,
the affirmation model was first named and suggested as an intervention, in the
ongoing debate around the social model, when disabled people, (e.g. Crow 1996;
Morris 1991; Thomas 1999) as they were telling their stories on their own terms
and developing a sense of disability pride, they debated that the social model
over highlights the structural barriers and ignores individual and new aspects
of disability, the affirmation model was proposed to address these criticisms. Digging
ideas in the values of disability view and pride, appearing from the disability
movements Swain and French classified the affirmation model as review of the
personal tragedy model consistent to the social model as an evaluate of the
medical model. In suggesting an affirmation model, Swain and French
set out a viewpoint from which it could be affirm that, far from being tragic,
that living with impairment can be experience as satisfying interesting and
valuable. It was made clear that, affirmation model is builds upon the
social model rather than a substitute, affirmation model is established and is
not a purpose of social model to reject view of impairment, instead to be seen
as personal tragedy. This model is about embracing
and accepting disability as something to live with in everyday life, not unfortunate but a common factor in
human life, it establishes the rights and full inclusion of people
with disability to feel okay about themselves and to take pride in who they are
as people with impairments. According
to Cameron (2014, p.5), the affirmation model is about; ”being different and
thinking differently about being different but individually and collectively,
the affirmation of being unique in the society, challenging presumptions about
themselves and their lives, not only in terms of how they differ from what is
normal or average but also about the assertion on their own terms of human
embodiment, quality of life, life style and identity, ways of being that
embrace difference”.  In a research a disable feminist
Lola, stated that being a disabled woman is an experience she would not want to
be without, she acknowledged the uncomfortable reality of her impairment, she
rejects the ideology of normality and regards her impairment as core part of
something without which she would not be who she is. Disability & Society,
vol, 15. No.4, 2000, pp.569-582 (n. d.).  


and understanding of disability were increasingly in question during the 1970s,
a new art was begging to emerge from disability activists, the union of the physically
impaired against segregation. (UPIAS) in 1976 (Barnes et al 2002, p. 43). Setup
by Paul Hunt. The 1980s and 190s saw a new shift and a move away from the
medical model and a recognition that disability is created by society. Social model recognises that while people have impairment
that they become disabled by the way society is
organised and that society actively exclude them from full participation. People have impairments but are not people with
disabilities they are disabled by poor or non-existent access to the public
places where ordinary life happens and unwelcoming responses of the society. The development of a social model of disability has
redefined ‘disability’ in terms of the barriers constructed in a disabling society
rather than as a personal tragedy. The social model supports the
removing of barriers and full inclusion in the society and human right. Support
be put in place to enable a full meaningful life and the power given to disable
people to making decision in their life. Reflecting wider international and
European influences (UN CRPD), people with disabilities began to reframe their
situation in Ireland in 1990s in terms of human rights. Move from medical to
social model need was endorsed by the findings of a strategy for equality,
which stated (commission on the status of people with disabilities,1996:9).  According to Share and Lalor (2009, p.336) ”A
given level of impairment or degree of restriction does not necessarily lead to
disadvantage: it is a societal response, in terms of attitudes and expectation
as well as the service and facilities made available, which has an important
impact on the extent to which impairment or disability lead to disadvantage”.
John O’Brian, developed a model of service that act as facilitator, rather than
segregating individuals, this is to ensure that people with disability are
linked in their community and are also participating, this strategy differentiates
between the person, service and community, the persons friends, and the
networks being important, the persons community seen as resource, as the
environment that the person needs to be connected to. The role the service is
to support and safeguard individuals within their social network, developing
and creating new opportunity in their community, this model and the service is persona
cantered, and informed by individuals needs and choices, as opposed to the
traditional management approach. Where service and activities where group
based. Social model has roots in the idea of social valorisation. According to
Lalor and Share (20013, p.294) Wolf Wolfensberger (1934-20011), describe SRV,
as; application of what science can tell us about enablement and establishment
or defence of valued roles for people. Wolf Wolfensherger called these the good
things in life; ”the good things in life include home family, friendship being
accorded dignity, respect, acceptance, a sense of belonging, an education and
the development and exercise of one’s capacities, a voice in affairs of one’s
community and society, opportunities to participate, a decent material standard
of living and opportunity for work and self-support”. O’Brian and O’Brian
(1989) describe the five-valued experience, that all people seek to experience
consistent with good things in life describe by the theory of SRV. These are, relationships,
exercise choice, making a contributing, sharing ordinary places, having the
experience of being treated with respect and dignity, O’Brian referred to the
five service accomplishments are achieved as community participation, promoting
choice, supporting contribution, community presence and encouraging social

Social model

to (Barnes et al p.60, p. 61) In the early civilization, in 19th
century as industrial capitalism developed, workhouses where categorised
disabled and none disabled, people with disabilities were seen as deficit and
were excluded from industrial production, the society saw them as people, who’s
labour power is impaired, not productive and weak to contribute to the society,
people with disability were shut away in a
specialized institution and isolated from the mainstream of ordinary
life. The society see disabled people as
the problem that needed to be eliminated from the society. The
general care provision of services for them was given in a segregated setting, where their most basic needs were not met, and
there was no interaction with people with no disabilities. Disability were object of fun and jokes,
and people treat them like they needed pity or charity and, some of the assumptions of the society
were that disabled people are the way they were because their parents had done
something wrong or destiny, the society
made them a public issue rather than a personal tragedy, this model made
disable people to be disable by their differences and impairments. Disability
was a medical problem that needed to be cured and that could only be assisted
in a theoretical setting, the power to cure
and change disabled people seems to lie within the medical professionals, and disabled people’s lives were handed over to these
specialists and their decisions were made for them, they decide what support they get, where they
live, and even, at times, whether they are born at all, or allowed to have
children themselves.
the services were all placed and focus on treatment, rather than the
needs of the person, the medical model disempowered people with disability, the
medical model fail to differentiate the person from the disability and also fails
to acknowledge that people with disability are unique and have skills, likes,
dislikes and abilities. According to Lalor and share (20014, p.291, p. 292), The
social status and the practices of 
segregation continued to grow during 1850s and by nineteen century there
were twenty two district ‘ lunatics’ asylums’ in 1869, the Stewart institution
for Idiotic and imbecile Children was opened and the aim for this is to train
children with disability so that they will return home, when they reach
eighteen years of age but they did not return to their family and their numbers
grow, another institution was open and named for incurables, as they grew into adulthood in segregated setting with
limited resources, with absence of necessary education, the low expectation
people have of them, the negative stereotype of labelling, ‘ the cripple,’ an epileptic’
and the limited experience to ordinary life, as a result of this, many fail to
reach their potential.


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