Affirmation model by John Swain and Sally French in 2000,the affirmation model was first named and suggested as an intervention, in theongoing debate around the social model, when disabled people, (e.
g. Crow 1996;Morris 1991; Thomas 1999) as they were telling their stories on their own termsand developing a sense of disability pride, they debated that the social modelover highlights the structural barriers and ignores individual and new aspectsof disability, the affirmation model was proposed to address these criticisms. Digging theirideas in the values of disability view and pride, appearing from the disabilitymovements Swain and French classified the affirmation model as review of thepersonal tragedy model consistent to the social model as an evaluate of themedical model. In suggesting an affirmation model, Swain and Frenchset out a viewpoint from which it could be affirm that, far from being tragic,that living with impairment can be experience as satisfying interesting andvaluable. It was made clear that, affirmation model is builds upon thesocial model rather than a substitute, affirmation model is established and isnot a purpose of social model to reject view of impairment, instead to be seenas personal tragedy. This model is about embracingand accepting disability as something to live with in everyday life, not unfortunate but a common factor inhuman life, it establishes the rights and full inclusion of peoplewith disability to feel okay about themselves and to take pride in who they areas people with impairments. Accordingto Cameron (2014, p.
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5), the affirmation model is about; ”being different andthinking differently about being different but individually and collectively,the affirmation of being unique in the society, challenging presumptions aboutthemselves and their lives, not only in terms of how they differ from what isnormal or average but also about the assertion on their own terms of humanembodiment, quality of life, life style and identity, ways of being thatembrace difference”. In a research a disable feministLola, stated that being a disabled woman is an experience she would not want tobe without, she acknowledged the uncomfortable reality of her impairment, sherejects the ideology of normality and regards her impairment as core part ofsomething without which she would not be who she is. Disability & Society,vol, 15. No.4, 2000, pp.569-582 (n. d.).
Affirmationmodel Definitionand understanding of disability were increasingly in question during the 1970s,a new art was begging to emerge from disability activists, the union of the physicallyimpaired against segregation. (UPIAS) in 1976 (Barnes et al 2002, p. 43). Setupby Paul Hunt. The 1980s and 190s saw a new shift and a move away from themedical model and a recognition that disability is created by society. Social model recognises that while people have impairmentthat they become disabled by the way society isorganised and that society actively exclude them from full participation. People have impairments but are not people withdisabilities they are disabled by poor or non-existent access to the publicplaces where ordinary life happens and unwelcoming responses of the society.
The development of a social model of disability hasredefined ‘disability’ in terms of the barriers constructed in a disabling societyrather than as a personal tragedy. The social model supports theremoving of barriers and full inclusion in the society and human right. Supportbe put in place to enable a full meaningful life and the power given to disablepeople to making decision in their life. Reflecting wider international andEuropean influences (UN CRPD), people with disabilities began to reframe theirsituation in Ireland in 1990s in terms of human rights.
Move from medical tosocial model need was endorsed by the findings of a strategy for equality,which stated (commission on the status of people with disabilities,1996:9). According to Share and Lalor (2009, p.336) ”Agiven level of impairment or degree of restriction does not necessarily lead todisadvantage: it is a societal response, in terms of attitudes and expectationas well as the service and facilities made available, which has an importantimpact on the extent to which impairment or disability lead to disadvantage”.John O’Brian, developed a model of service that act as facilitator, rather thansegregating individuals, this is to ensure that people with disability arelinked in their community and are also participating, this strategy differentiatesbetween the person, service and community, the persons friends, and thenetworks being important, the persons community seen as resource, as theenvironment that the person needs to be connected to. The role the service isto support and safeguard individuals within their social network, developingand creating new opportunity in their community, this model and the service is personacantered, and informed by individuals needs and choices, as opposed to thetraditional management approach. Where service and activities where groupbased. Social model has roots in the idea of social valorisation. According toLalor and Share (20013, p.
294) Wolf Wolfensberger (1934-20011), describe SRV,as; application of what science can tell us about enablement and establishmentor defence of valued roles for people. Wolf Wolfensherger called these the goodthings in life; ”the good things in life include home family, friendship beingaccorded dignity, respect, acceptance, a sense of belonging, an education andthe development and exercise of one’s capacities, a voice in affairs of one’scommunity and society, opportunities to participate, a decent material standardof living and opportunity for work and self-support”. O’Brian and O’Brian(1989) describe the five-valued experience, that all people seek to experienceconsistent with good things in life describe by the theory of SRV. These are, relationships,exercise choice, making a contributing, sharing ordinary places, having theexperience of being treated with respect and dignity, O’Brian referred to thefive service accomplishments are achieved as community participation, promotingchoice, supporting contribution, community presence and encouraging socialroles. Social modelAccordingto (Barnes et al p.60, p. 61) In the early civilization, in 19thcentury as industrial capitalism developed, workhouses where categoriseddisabled and none disabled, people with disabilities were seen as deficit andwere excluded from industrial production, the society saw them as people, who’slabour power is impaired, not productive and weak to contribute to the society,people with disability were shut away in aspecialized institution and isolated from the mainstream of ordinarylife. The society see disabled people asthe problem that needed to be eliminated from the society.
Thegeneral care provision of services for them was given in a segregated setting, where their most basic needs were not met, andthere was no interaction with people with no disabilities. Disability were object of fun and jokes,and people treat them like they needed pity or charity and, some of the assumptions of the societywere that disabled people are the way they were because their parents had donesomething wrong or destiny, the societymade them a public issue rather than a personal tragedy, this model madedisable people to be disable by their differences and impairments. Disabilitywas a medical problem that needed to be cured and that could only be assistedin a theoretical setting, the power to cureand change disabled people seems to lie within the medical professionals, and disabled people’s lives were handed over to thesespecialists and their decisions were made for them, they decide what support they get, where theylive, and even, at times, whether they are born at all, or allowed to havechildren themselves.the services were all placed and focus on treatment, rather than theneeds of the person, the medical model disempowered people with disability, themedical model fail to differentiate the person from the disability and also failsto acknowledge that people with disability are unique and have skills, likes,dislikes and abilities. According to Lalor and share (20014, p.
291, p. 292), Thesocial status and the practices of segregation continued to grow during 1850s and by nineteen century therewere twenty two district ‘ lunatics’ asylums’ in 1869, the Stewart institutionfor Idiotic and imbecile Children was opened and the aim for this is to trainchildren with disability so that they will return home, when they reacheighteen years of age but they did not return to their family and their numbersgrow, another institution was open and named for incurables, as they grew into adulthood in segregated setting withlimited resources, with absence of necessary education, the low expectationpeople have of them, the negative stereotype of labelling, ‘ the cripple,’ an epileptic’and the limited experience to ordinary life, as a result of this, many fail toreach their potential.