Agriculture, Farming & Animal Sciences
Agriculture is the world’s most important industry. It provides us with almost all our food. It also supplies materials for two other basic human needs — clothing and shelter. In addition, agriculture provides materials used in making many industrial products, such as paints and medicines. About half the word’s workers are employed in agriculture — far more than are employed in any other industry.
However, nearly all the scientific improvements in agriculture have occurred in industrialized nations. In many developing countries, people farm much as their methods have great difficulty increasing their production of food. But increased food production is necessary to keep up with today’s rapid population growth. Helping the developing nation modernize their agriculture is one of the major challenges of the industrial nations and is essential if famine is to be avoided.
Farming and agriculture is of critical importance as the major source of food for people in all nations. More than 90% of the total world supply comes from farms, including ranches; the rest comes from fishing and hunting. Because the world population is still growing at near, the fastest rate in history and the aggregate net population growth is increasing year by year, there is critical needy for development of farming and for efficient use of the resources devoted to agricultural or farming use.
It may be assumed that the food problems of the world are manageable if appropriate attention is given to development of farming and to the services required for marketing and for supply of inputs to farms, and if rates of population increase are eventually brought under control.
Sustained growth of agriculture and farming requires that improved technology be developed for all major phases or factors of production. This includes development and adaptation of new varieties of crops, improvements in fertilizer production and distribution, appropriate use of chemicals for plant and animal protection, more efficient water management, and improved methods of plant and animal culture. The development of farming and agriculture as a central means of solving the world’s hunger, malnutrition, and poverty problems is one of the most critical needs – possibly the most critical need – of this generation.
What Is the Work Like of a Farm Manager?
Farm managers are employed to run a farm efficiently and profitably. The work involved depends party on the Type of farm.
There are three main types:
• Livestock – raising animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry
• Arable – growing crops such as cereals (wheat barley and oats) potatoes, sugar beet, vegetables and oil seed rape.
• Mixed – combining livestock and arable farming.
There are different types of farm manager jobs. They may run a whole estate or just part of it. such as a pig unit or arable unit. The work includes:
· Organizing and supervising they plan the running of the farm and how the budget is spent. They set targets for how much the farm is to produce over the next year. employ staff, organize their work and manage them. They also plan livestock breeding, decide when to plant crops, and buy materials such as fertilizers and animal feed. They are responsible for selling the crops or animal produce.
· keeping records – they keep a wide range of records and documents on the development of livestock and/or crops and financial records. They may be helped by a farm secretary.
· Practical work – unless they are the manager of a very large farm, they will do some of the day-to-day practical work on the farm. This can include feeding animals, organizing breeding and milking cows. They may also drive tractors and other machinery for ploughing, spreading fertilizer and harvesting crops.
· Other activities – many farms do much more than just raising livestock and crops. For instance, the farm may have a nature trail or farm shop. It may also offer horse riding facilities or provide accommodation for tourists. As a farm manager they may be responsible for these.
Practical work on the farm is usually outdoors in all weather conditions. The exception is if they work in a special indoor unit for pigs or poultry. The work can involve lifting, carrying, bending and standing. Work with livestock can be smelly.
When dealing with Paperwork, they spend their time indoors in an office. How much paperwork they do depends on the size and type of the farm.
Required Skills and Personal Qualities
A farm manager should.
· Be fit, energetic and strong,
· be willing to work outdoors in all weather conditions
· have business management and marketing skills
· have the ability to find and develop new activities to keep the farm profitable
· be good with figures for budgeting and keeping financial records
· be able to use a computer
· be able to communicate well with others such as farm workers, accountants and buyers
· be good at working with their hands and willing to tackle all sorts of practical jobs
· be capable of working under pressure
· be able to organize and motivate staff
· have a driving licence.
Required Interests to Be a Farm Manager
It helps to be interested in:
· science. to understand the conditions livestock and crops need for the best growth
· the care of the environment.
Choosing Agriculture/Farming as A Career
Requisites – What kind of a person makes a successful farmer? Generally, he must be a good manager. He must have appropriate finances and resources with which to work. He must have access to a desirable range of alternatives in organization of his resources.
Effective management requires the proper balance among (1) planning. (2) organizing (3) directing (4) coordinating and (5) controlling.
Planning is the considered management of the elements to make an operation successful.
Organizing involves coordinating people and other resources into a working unit to achieve the desired results.
Directing means giving clear instructions. delegating proper authority, and encouraging and motivating people to want to perform effectively.
Coordinating requires establishing and maintaining operating at the desired levels through the appropriate channels.
Controlling involves checking on progress, interpreting results, and taking appropriate remedial action if this is required.
The amount. type. and quality of management required on an individual farm varies with the size of farm. The type of agriculture, the family or work situation, the degree of mechanization, and other factors. The difficulty of management varies also according to external factors. such as the cost and availability of inputs – machinery fertilizer, and so on – and on the efficiency of the marketing system. The problems of managing a given acreage are far different, for example_ in the center of the Corn Belt in America than they are in the Genetic Plain of India. Generaly, management problems are simpler in a single-crop agriculture than they are in a multi-cropping situation. Generally, also they simpler on a small farm than on a large farm.
Specialization – In general. farming has become more specialized or less diversified as development has taken place. Technologies and large machines shift the comparative advantages in this direction. As the capacity of a system of machines increases, or as this capacity of increases relative to the amount of labor employed-economic advantage accrues increasingly toward fuller employment of the given system. The problem becomes one of using capital and machines to full capacity over longer periods of time, rather than maintaining a variety of crops or livestock enterprises to make fuller use of family or other labor. A given line of equipment on a good family-sized grain farm – including tractors, cultivators. seeding equipment. fertilizer spreaders. chemical sprayers, combines, trucks, storage and drying equipment – may cost well in excess of Rs. 20,00,000. and an advantage accrues to having it fully utilized.
The problem of the farm manager is to cover the net additional cost of any input with increased net returns. This can best be done in most highly developed situations b moving toward specialized enterprises of considerable scale, rather than by adding various other enterprises that might require their own specialized type of equipment. In many cases. of course, a given line of equipment will have complementary uses in more than one type of enterprise. Much the same kind of machinery is used in both corn and soybean cultivation. Thus. corn soybeans are complementary enterprises. and often both are grown on the same farm.
Opportunities – The opportunities and outlook for farming as a career of course differ from country to country and from region to region. Factors others than geography also are involved. The farming population has declined roughly in proportion to the rate of extent of economic development. Thus it has declined hardly at all in India or in tropical Africa, but it has by more than half in the United States and a few other economically advanced countries. Opportunities that exist are generally fewer but in many respects vastly superior to those of an earlier day. This is the case especially in the developed countries, it is to be hoped that it is, or will become. more true in the less developed nations.
Education – Education at university level and in extension programmes and training for young people in vocational agriculture have contributed greatly to people’s adaptability to farming as a career. This is most evident in the developed countries. The known advances by the developed counties are being extended to other countries at various rates through introduction of new technologies and through educational programmes carried on by universities. As education takes hold and as resources are developed, the farm economy develops. This makes a contribution to the total welfare or living of the society. providing more abundant food and other necessities of life for people around the world.
Education in the area of Agricultural and Animal Sciences covers Agricultural Sciences. Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (which along with Animal Product Technology such as Dairying is now known as Animal Science), Fisheries, Horticulture. Sericulture. and Forestry and Wild Life. Home Science is also considered a part of agricultural education and, therefore, most of the Home Science Colleges are affiliated to Agricultural Universities. In addition, Food Science and Technology is also treated as a subject allied to agricultural science.
Education is offered by agricultural universities at graduation, post-graduation and doctoral levels in eleven fields: (1) Agriculture (2) Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (Animal Science) (3) Agricultural Engineering. (4) Home Science (5) Fisheries Science (6) Dairy science and Technology (7) Agricultural Management (including Marketing. Banking and Cooperation) (8) Forestry (9) Horticulture (10) Sericulture and (11) Food Science and Technology.