Agriculture has beenhighly valued in Unites States since they have fed from farming and farmerscontributed to society. By the agricultural industries developed, they becameavailable to produce large yield. Government founding, improving in farmingmachinery, better seeds, and high quality fertilizer have made more success infarming and made more money for the agricultural industries (USA usemabassy, American Agriculture: Its ChangingSignificance. Retrieved from https://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/oecon/chap8.htm).The GMO seed which is genetically modified organism is the one that acceleratedthe industry.

It is not wonder why people prefer GMO seed. GMO seed has desiredtrait like disease resistance or drought tolerance, safe for human, animal, andenvironment. Also these seeds grow into plants that might use water moreefficiently or better withstand pests like bugs or weeds, which means they mayrequire less farmland to grow (Moderag, Thescience inside the GMO seed (2017, Feb 1)https://modernag.

org/innovation/the-science-inside-gmo-seeds/).  However, there are disputes about GM seeds.The GM food might cause cancer, premature death, and Antibiotic-resistantbacteria can resist antibiotics, making them hard to kill (Treacy Colbert,Health line. GMO pros and cons. Retrieved from https://www.

healthline.com/health/gmos-pros-and-cons#labeling).This is not only the problem but GMO Seed Company’s monopoly on sale of seedsis also a significant problem. What economists are saying is that if fourcompanies have power on 40 percent of a market, it’s no longer competitive toother small businesses.

That is what is happening in current GMO seed industries.There are big four companies seize the power of seed industries and Monsanto whichis the largest seed’s company in the world has the power in the GMO seedindustries. These companies own 80% of corn market and 70% of the soybeanmarket in United States. According to the research done by Washington StateUniversity, when GM soybeans came to dominate the market in the year of 2000 to2010, the seed’s price increased 230%.

The cost for Monsanto’s soybeans in 2010was $70 per bag, since 2001 a 143% increase in the price of GM seed. (KenRoseboro, Food Democracy Now. (2013, Oct 4) The GMO Seed Monopoly: fewerchoices, higher prices. Retrieved fromhttp://www.

fooddemocracynow.org/blog/2013/oct/4/the_gmo_seed_ monopo ly_fewer_choices_higher_prices). This is huge increase in cost and it is killingfarmers.             There are three regulatory agency which control the GMOdistributions and they are Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food andDrug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Firstof all, Environmental Protection Agency regulates bio pesticides. If the cropshas an issue with bio pesticides, the producer must identify that it is nottoxic and the crop is safe for human to be eaten.

The second agency, Food andDrug Administration, has a duty to inquiry the GM crops are not harmful tohuman. (Federation of American scientists, Agricultural biosecurity, retrievedfromhttps://fas.org/biosecurity/education/dualuse-agriculture/2.-agricultural-biotechnology/us-regulation-of-genetically-engineered-crops.html).The last agency is USDA and they develop and execute the federal laws aboutanything that is related to farming. Those are three agencies that regulate GMfood products and the laws about GM crops.

Unlike to GM crops, there aredifferent regulations to grow organic food and it is complex to farmers. Theland must be free from any harmful substances that prohibited on the NationalList for three years and have buffer zone and boundaries to prevent the landaffected from unexpected prohibited substances. Other than that, they shouldkeep the soil erosion at minimum level, non-chemical application must be usedto manage the land and crops, and there are so much rules about organic farmingin National List.

There’s much more to consider than simply National OrganicProgram (NOP) land policy, such as taxes, ease of access, soil quality, andwater availability.             The heirloom food is that plants and animals were grownin earlier time but it is not dealt in today’s agriculture. There are hundredkinds of plants and animals that we have never had because the most agriculturesystem treat only few kinds of them. I have also never had any heirloom foodbut they say that heirloom foods are more flavorful and strong to local pestand disease.

One more good fact is that because only small land farmer growsthose heirloom plant, when we buy them, we can support heirloom plants farmers.This heirloom food were showed up at least 50 years ago and those were socommonly eaten by people who get old now. Unfortunately, at that time thetransportation was not developed to deliver so they had a difficulties to sellit and the farmers stopped to grow heirloom plants. However, currently heirloomplants are getting popular and demanded by people. Because old people who havetasted heirloom fruits want them, chefs who desire more flavorful plants wantthem, and the expectations to food is getting higher by people.

  As person desiring good health andenvironmental conditions, I would like to support the practices of Americanfarmers producing organic and heirloom foods. Organic foods might cost littlemore than GM and hybrid food but more money would be worth it. I mean they putmore effort and they help you to keep your body healthy. We cannot cover ourbody that is polluted and it takes more money to recover it with medicine. Ofcourse I will spend more money to buy health, safe, non-chemical, andeco-friendly organic food.

Also as an epicure, I would like to support theheirloom farmers. Simply because it has more flavor, taste, and nutritious.What would you purchase, GM food or organic heirloom foods? Of course organic!(Sam Cho, ORGANIC CONSUMERS ASSOCIATION. (2015, march 24)Why you should grow heirloom seeds, retrieved fromhttps://www.organicconsumers.org/news/why-you-should-grow-heirloom-seeds). The Smithfields Fieldwas founded by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W in Smithfield, Virginia.

Luter, Jr., opened their meatpacking plant on the former site of the AmericanPeanut Corporation along the banks of the Pagan River. Their town had greatreputation on producing hams and meats in late 1700s and the company grew wellduring thirty years. However they had a bankruptcy under the ownership ofLiberty Properties. This crisis went over by returning of Joseph W.

Luter 3 andthe companied started to grow fast. In 1995 Smithfield purchased John Morrell& Co. and it helped them to lead the US pork processing industries and inlate 1990s they expanded the company to Poland and Romania. Above all their hogproduction operation achieved great accomplishment and expanded the company. C.Larry Pope became president and CEO in 2006 and the company expanded its focuson consumer packaged meats. Dennis Treacy in 2010 the company’s first chiefsustainability officer, formalized the company’s sustainability practices underthe six pillars:  In 2011 they began tofocus on their marketing and sales and put effort on 12 strategic meat packingbrands. (Smithfield Foods, retrieved fromhttps://www.

smithfieldfoods.com/about-smithfield). I think the major foods theyare producing are ham as the Smith’s high reputation, bacon, sausages, andpackaged meats.

Smithfield Foods Company is a big wholesaler so the maintargets are retailer and big markets. Usually sausages, hams, and bacons areconsumed by restaurant and the hams are consumed by deli. Smithfield put oneffort to keep the environment healthy. They regulate the GHG emissions toreduce over 25% by 2010 to 2015 and reduce natural resource demand and try tocomply 100% of the environmental rules. Also they have been working hard todecrease 5% energy consumption and 10% water use and reduce 10% solid waste.About the animal care, they have facility to maintain a systematic programbased on the North American Meat Institute’s animal handling guidelines andaudit guide and keep U.S.

Department of Agriculture (USDA) Process VerifiedProgram (PVP) certification. Moreover, they have met the conversion of grouphousing for the pregnant sows. (Smithfield, retrieved fromhttps://www.smithfieldfoods.com/integrated – report/2016/animal-care). Comparedto the USDA regulating to the process of organic food, Smithfield Company ismore than that level I guess. According to the data and research I have made Iwas so wonder about their so many certifications for the packaged meat,producing meat, growing hogs, and every facilities to be clean. This was soamazing.

              In Italy there was a protest to stop McDonald’s near theSpanish Steps in Rome in 1986 and it is called slow food. At the same time, there was cheap wine disaster whichbrought 19 people were dead and hundreds of people were poisoned by the cheapwine methanol. After the slow food movement protest begins, people did not eatfast food and brandished bowls of penne and other home-cooked Italian dishes toshow their anger and their dissatisfaction with fast food.

Carlo Petrini whoraised the slow foods movement said that this was the middle of the crisis ofItaly. Through this history slow food begin to spread out to the world. Slowfood is regional and local food products and shows sign to aware of food’sorigin. Thismovement were purpose on encouraging their local foods growing and prevent themfrom fast food’s threatens. Also slowfood movement encouraged events to promote indigenous food and culture.

Thismovement helped people to learn about local food and history as well. (PeterPopham, Independent. (2009, Dec 10)CarloPetrini: the slow food gourmet who started revolution.http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/carlo-petrini-the-slow-food-gourmet-who-started-a-revolution-1837223.

html).The concept of Conviviality could be referring as the heart of the slow foodmovement. Conviviality means taking time with cooking and the process ofcooking dishes are so enjoyable and bring great pleasure. Fast food can neverbring that kind of satisfaction coming from slow food. Also when we share thefood with others, we can feel more together and it is also conviviality. Today,Slow Food has over 150,000 members and is active in more than 150 countries,and American wants more local and origin food.

According to the Share America,there are 200 chapters and over 12000 people are in the USA Slow Food group.Also in NY which is the busiest and hectic city in the world has several slowfood events. I have found that there was a slow food 6th annual party in NYC.It was very interesting because when we go to Manhattan, everyone is holdingcoffee and sandwiches and walking so fast. This looks far away from slow foodand they are more familiar with fast food and want their food on their table assoon as possible. However, this is getting changed and people want to berelaxed and enjoy their food slowly.             In NYC Cuomo, thegovernor, planed New York Taste program to promote tourism, local foods andbeverages, and regional agriculture. Hundreds of people visit New York everyday and people would like to experience natural American food and this New Yorktaste will satisfy the tourists’ desire.

It is because their purpose on theprogram is to introduce the local and traditional taste and food to people (NewYork State, Governor’s press office, retrieved fromhttps://www.governor.ny.gov/news/governor-cuomo-announces-grand-opening-central-new-york-welcome-center-syracuse).Also Fresh Connect is encouraging local markets and harvests program and itliterally helps people to get fresh foods.

People in New York has difficultiesto have fresh food because of limited market produces. However this programsolve this problem and there are more fresh connect market opened and we canget them easier today. Also there is Farm to Institution in NYS(FINYS) which helps farmers to maintain their business in NewYork.

They seek for the way to have them greater economic chances and strategyto continue their farmland and local food business. FINYS finds private andpublic institution to supply local food and it will raise the regional andlocal food markets in New York. The last is Grow NYC program which has awesome offers.This program provide tools to anyone who use them to improve City environmentso that they can keep the city environment healthy. One of the famous job theyhave done is Union Square Market and they work to build more community gardenand introduce young people about the environment and recycling. This programsare so close to Slow Food with similar purpose. Both provides healthy naturalfood to people and raise local market industries which also contributes todevelop communities.

In my thought, Food to Table is more open for people toget local food and close to our lives. Slow food provide conviviality to peopleby offering food but food to table offers people ingredients to create theirown dishes and it gives more opportunities to have conviviality to people.Therefore both campaign cannot be omitted and they are so closely relative (GreenMarket, About us. Retrieved from https://www.grownyc. org/ about).             Food insecurity mean lowsecurity of food which has reduced quality, variety, or desirability of diet.Those insecurity food indicate multiple reduced food intake but high foodsecurity indicate no food problem.

Food bank is the non-profit organizationprovide food to those who have difficulties to buy food. In America theyusually open it like warehouse and they distribute them directly to hungrypeople. Like those people who receive help from food bank, there are area thatlack of food produce called food desert. It commonly happened in poor area thathas not enough groceries, farms, and healthy food producers. For those areas Ihave found the ‘First Lady’s Let’s Move!’ which planned Healthy Food FinancingInitiative (HFFI). They are working for expanding the availability ofnutritious food to food deserts (American Nutrition Association, MariGallagher. (2011). Retrieved from http://americannutritionassociation.

org/newsletter/usda-defines-food-deserts). Supplemental Food and NutritionProgram is another program that support people who need economic assistance andlow income individuals. They will receive card designed as ATMcard and people can use it for getting benefits. Households are able to use SNAP benefits to purchase foods such as breadsand cereals, fruits and vegetables, meats, fish and poultry and dairy products.As of January 2016, 45.4 million persons were participatingin SNAP and according to the data from Keeping Track Online, New York City has1,832,667 individual and 1,004,188 households who participating SNAP.

It didnot showed how many children participating SNAP in NYC but I have found that282,847 children has support by City government. Like above programs, LaGuardiahas a single stop to provide free benefits for Supplemental NutritionAssistance Program. They have food pantry every day in room C-107, they alsooffer students health care program. Those are free to students and I havevisited there to receive vaccine one time. They did not paid and so friendly toeveryone and have a very nice service.I was not really interested where the food came fromand how did it made and who grew the ingredients.

Most people only recognizehow much calories this food contains and how much sugar and fat does this foodhave. However, this is not only the factors that we should have considered. Theorigins and the type of plants seed are very affective to our health and environment.I have never given attention to what is GMO and just eat whatever they arebecause organic food is more expensive. Through this research, I have foundthat money is not going to the wrong place if you purchase organic food.

Theyput more time and effort to grow organic and heirloom plants and it is not easyto harvest them in regulation from certificated agencies. As I look forSmithfield Company, they grow animals in much specified condition of hoghousing and operate the system followed by policy of USDA and FDA. I believethis is why they could achieve their goals and developed incredibly. Thisresearch was worth and taught me a lot of important knowledge about food.

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