Air, water, soil, on skin, and in the body – bacteria is found everywhere. They are very small, one-celled organisms and the second smallest living things on Earth, other than viruses. As they form colonies, they multiply very quickly under certain conditions. 
To describe the morphology of a bacterial colony, look at several categories which are size, shape, pigmentation, texture, elevation, and margin. There are two ways the size of the colony can be described. One way is to measure the diameter of the colony with a ruler, and convert the size to millimeters, which is the most accurate technique. The second way to describe the size of the colonies is in tiny pinpoints called punctiform. You can either describe them as small, medium, or large. When talking about shape, you are talking about the overall appearance of the colonies. Colonies can have a different color due to the pigments that the bacteria gives off. When describing color, it is also important to identify the colony as opaque (you can not see through it), tranclucent (you can see through it), shiny, or dull. The texture applies to the features of the surface of the colony. They can be dry, wet, smooth, moist, rough, or include concentric rings. The colony elevation, or height, is an explaination of how the colony cultivates upright. The margin is also called the edge, and it portrays the boarders of the colony. 
Joseph Lister presented the theories of sanitation. He was born in Upton, England on April 5th, 1827. He attended Oxford University in the United Kingdom. Lister witnessed that between 45 and 50 percent of amputation patients died from sepsis. When he was 38 years old he 
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learned Louis Pasteur’s theory that germs trigger infection. He later died at age 85 on February 10th in Walmer, England and is viewed today as the “founder of antiseptic medicine.” Antiseptic medicine is any type of matter used to reduce infectious microorganisms from growing. 
Louis Pasteur had five children and three of them died due to typhoid fever, which is a sickness caused by Salmonella. People can get this by bacteria that is placed in food or water transported by a human and passed to others in the area. People think that because of the tragedies his children experienced, he chose to save people from disease. He believed in biogenesis, which is the impression that living organisms only come from other living organisms. He also invalidated spontaneous generation. With lots of laboratory studies, Louis Pasteur in the 1860s and Robert Koch in the 1870s, they both gave scientific confirmation for their germ theories. By both Pasteur and Koch doing many researches and tests, it gave others a reason to identify the life-saving treatments and to iliminate disease-causing germs. 
Humans transport their own specific colonies of bacteria, and that bacteria can spread and cause other people to ingest it. People spread germs by their hands, mouth, nose, or eyes. For example, when people do not wash their hands after sneezing or using the restroom, and then they touch food, those germs are given to those who eat the food. Bacteria can reproduce on its own, unlike viruses. Although, like viruses some bacteria require to live inside another cell.
There are multiple disinfectants that can be used on surfaces to kill germs. As people look at the varieties of disinfectants, they see “Kills 99.9% of Germs”. They can test a certain type of bacteria to see the outcome, and that may kill 99.9% of that certain bacteria, but they have not tested every type of bacteria. So when you see “Kills 99.9% of Germs”, you know its only an individual or several amount of germs. Using alcohol is also an option for disinfectant. In 1818, 
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Louis Jacque Thenard was the first to discover the first disinfectant in the nineteenth century, carbolic acid, which today is called phenol.  He also revealed hydrogen peroxide. He discovered that both oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms are found in hydrogen peroxide. You can use hydrogen peroxide in many different ways. It is known to clean out wounds. When the hydrogen peroxide is foaming in the cut, the foam is released oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is mostly used to treat water supplies, by avoiding the development of colors, tastes, and microorganism poverty. Bleach can also be used to kill just about everything, because of its extremely destructive, and harsh characteristics. It is said to never mix bleach with any other compound because it can be highly reactive and dangerous to people who are exposed to it. Disinfectant is used to help get rid of, and prevent the growth of microorganisms, but it does not destroy them. When using a disinfectant wipe, spray, or anything, it is disrupting the cells physical makeup and causing the synthetic process to be blocked. 


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