: Height is an important biological human characteristic inanthropological studiesand forensic medicine. In this way, arm length (AL) forearm length (FL) can be a useful factor for the heightprediction in different population. The purpose of this study was to estimate theheight from upper limb anthropometry. Materials and Methods: The present study was done to estimatethe stature of 98males and 95 females from arm and forearm length of individuals having age group of 18-25, in Department of Anatomy,medical students studying at Tehran Universityof Medical Sciences. The data thus obtained has been subjected to statisticalcomputation for deriving the regression equations. Results: Males showed higher mean values in eachanthropometric measurementthan females. Arm length (AL) in both of the sexes exhibited higher correlation coefficients with height.
In regression analysis, females population exhibit a lower standard error of estimate (SEE) (±5.40-5.62 cm) than males population(±5.54-5.70). Discussion: In conclusion, forearm length gives better predictionof height.
Key Words: Arm length, Forearm length, height, Anthropology,Anthropometry Introduction: Anthropometry is a branch of anthropology which deals with the measurement of different parts of human body(Taura2011). The Anthropometric data bank is essential for making a dimensional proportion between human and equipment or an environment(Navid et al. 2014). It isapplied to identification that appears to be a critical consideration in the forensic medicine and the victims of suicide, bomb blast, war, accident, earthquakes, and crimescan be identified(Choudhary et al. 2013).
Height, age, race, and gender, the big four parameters,are considered to develop the anthropometrical databases. These data can confirm the process of identification(Gochaet al. 2013). Bones as thebody segments were mostly used for height estimation in different studies(Lee et al. 2014;Macaluso and Lucena 2014; Meshram et al. 2014; Sl?dek et al. 2015), howeverpercutaneous length of bones was evaluated in several studies(Moorthy et al. 2014; Pal and Datta 2014; Ragavan and Chandran 2015; Shahet al.
2015; Umesh and Kuppast 2011). So, designing a biological profile isneeded. This profile can confirm the process of finalidentification(Mahakizadeh et al. 2016). However, lower limb measurements have more directlycorrelation with height than upper limbs(Ahmed 2013). Although several studies have been done for finding a relationship between height and bone measurements, there are limited reportsregarding Iranianpopulation(Gocha et al.
2013; Krishan et al. 2012a; Mohanty et al. 2013; Shendeet al. 2013; Singh et al.
2013). Some researches could evaluate the relation betweenheight and upper arm length (UAL) or percutaneous humerus length and defineformulas for this relationship in different age groups. According to theresults of these studies, the reliability and prediction power of the derivedformulae were different(Baniket al. 2012; Mall et al. 2001; Salles et al. 2009). The purpose of this study was to estimate the height from the length of arm and forearm in Iranian population.
Materials and methods: A sample of 193 normal healthy Iranian volunteers (98male and 95 female) were selected from medical students studying at Tehran University of MedicalSciences. Theparticipants ranged between 18–25 years old. All the subjects were right-handed and non-athletic. According to standard ethics drawn by the Tehran University ethical committee forhuman experimentation, subjects were examined for height, upper arm length, forearm length. All measurements were performed in standard position by standardanthropological instruments.
All measurements were done by the same observersand with the same instruments to prevent any technical and inter-observermistakes. Height (standing height): Height was measured incentimeter. Each subject was asked to stand barefoot on a flat surface. Upright height was taken from thevertex to the floor according to the anatomical position and Frankfurt Plane. Upper arm length (UAL): The length of arm was measured in 90degrees bended elbow in persons with standing position. The length of arm was defined as the distance between acromion end of clavicle and olecranon process. Forearm length (FAL): It is measured from head of radius totip of styloid process of radius using standard measuring tape. Left limb was used for measurements Statistical analysis: All data were entered to thecomputer and SPSS 21 software wasused for data analysis.
Descriptive quantitative data were shown as mean± standarddeviation (SD). T-test was carried out to compare the data. Correlations between quantitative datawere reported and linear regression was usedto predict the relation between height and arm and forearm length Results: In this study, the height rangewas 148 to 194 cm (170.49±9.79) in students of Tehran University of medical sciences (Table 1). According to table 2, the mean height of male and female was 177.
84±6.76 and 162.91± 5.84cm. Themean weight of male students was 75.74 ± 14.
39 and mean weight of femalestudents was 62.54 ±9.97 kg. The mean measurements of AL and FL in malestudents were 33.41±2.
89 and 29.24±2.22 cm respectively. The mean measurementsof AL and FL in female students were 30.65±2.
25 and 26.36±1.94 cm. The average, minimum, maximum and standard deviations ofthe AL and FL measurements for Iranian males and females with addition of age,height and weight measurement are shown in Table2. The male population hassignificantly higher valuesin all dimensions than the female population according to thet-test results; there are significantdifferences between all measurements in both genders (P = 0.001). Because of the size difference between two genders, thecorrelation coefficients and regression model need to be derived for the maleand the female separately.
The relationship between the height and measured variables for both genders were analyzed with using the Pearson correlation coefficient. In all subjects (Totalgroup) analysis, all measurements showed significant correlation coefficientswith height (p < 0.05). Forearm length was found to be the variable with the highest correlation to height (r=0.
666, p=0.0001). In male group, AL (r= 0.579, p=0.0001) had highestrelationship to height and FL was less relevant (r=0.544, p=0.0001). In femalegroup, AL (r= 0.
393, p=0.0001) had highest relationship to height but FL wasless relevant (r=0.285, p=0.005) (Fig.1).
Linear regression analysis was conducted to estimateheight from measured variable. Regression equations have been computed for each sex and for each measurement separately (Table3). Height was considered as the dependent variable and arm and FL as theindependent variables. In total group, FL (R2= 0.444, p=0.0001) proved to bethe highest determiningfactors in the regression equation (table 3).
The AL showed the highest accuracy among the male group (R2=0.335, p=0.0001). Similarly, in female group, AL indicated that the highestaccuracy (R2= 0.154, p=0.0001, table 3). The standard error of estimate (SEE) predicts the deviations of estimated height from the actual height. It rangesbetween ±5.
54 to ±5.70 for males and between ±5.40 to ±5.62 for females. A lower value of SEE,indicates greater reliability in the estimated of height.
Discussion Height estimation is one of the important elements forindividual identification in forensic, legal medicine, anthropologicalresearches and prediction of height from body segments remain from crimes andmass disasters(Krishan et al. 2012b; Patel etal. 2012; Srivastava and Sahai 2010).
Several researches were carried out to estimate the relation between heightand upper limb segments such as, arm, forearm in Iran and other populations(Akhlaghi et al. 2012;Ilayperuma et al. 2010; Rastogi et al. 2009; Shah et al.
2015; Srivastava andSahai 2010). In this study, 193 cases were randomly selected from healthy population and the relationship between height and arm and forearm lengths were evaluated, and equations forheight estimation from these parameters were showed. The mean of height, armand forearm length were higher in males. The result has been obtained by Krishan et al(Krishan and Sharma 2007) Jasuja etal(Jasuja and Singh 2004) and Kanchan et al(Kanchan et al. 2010) were similar to ours.
Our previous study showed that the correlation between height and AL of cases (r=0.716(. There was a correlation between height andFAL of male cases(r=0.631(.However, thiscorrelation wasn’t significant for female cases(r=0.231((Navid et al. 2014). On the other side Akhlaghi et al.
(2012) found the correlation between FL andheight (r=0.580). These results confirmed the differences between Iranian nations(Akhlaghi et al. 2012). FL was superior for predicting the heightin comparison with other factors such as arm length (r=0.
759)(Eftekhar Vaghefi et al. 2014)that it was similar to our result(r= 0.666). Generally results of this study showed that higher correlation of FL in both sexes exhibitedcoefficients with height. Linear regression is a reliable method for estimating the relation between height and body fragments(Ilayperuma et al. 2010).
In this study the relation between height and AL and FL were found for all cases based on linearregression equation and forearm length proved to be the highest determining factors in the regression equation ( H= 98.78+ 2.57×FL (cm) withSEE=7.
31 and R2 =0.444). Eftekhar Vaghefi et al achieved the same result in Iranianpopulation(Eftekhar Vaghefi et al. 2014).
According to our results, along withfactors such as long bones,the height of the body can be estimated by anthropometric evaluation of arm and forearm length using the abovementioned formulas. In conclusion, the present study found that Male exhibitgreater dimensions than thefemales for the arm and forearm length and the height. Height and arm and forearm length are positively and significantlycorrelated with each other (p<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived for estimation of heightreliably and accurately that would be of immense value in the field of crimedetection.
The regressionequation derived in the study can be used accurately and reliably forestimation of height in a diverse population group. Acknowledgment: We would like to thank medical students for their cooperationin this study.