: Height is an important biological human characteristic in
and forensic medicine.
In this way, arm length (AL) forearm length (FL) can be a useful factor for the height
prediction in different population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the
height from upper limb anthropometry. Materials and Methods: The present study was done to estimate
the stature of 98
males and 95 females from arm and forearm length of individuals having age group of 18-25, in Department of Anatomy,
medical students studying at Tehran University
of Medical Sciences.
The data thus obtained has been subjected to statistical
computation for deriving the regression equations. Results: Males showed higher mean values in each
than females. Arm length (AL) in both of the sexes exhibited higher correlation coefficients with height.
In regression analysis, females population exhibit a lower standard error of estimate (SEE) (±5.40-5.62 cm) than males population
(±5.54-5.70). Discussion: In conclusion, forearm length gives better prediction
of height. Key Words: Arm length, Forearm length, height, Anthropology,
Anthropometry Introduction: Anthropometry is a branch of anthropology which deals with the measurement of different parts of human body(Taura
The Anthropometric data bank is essential for making a dimensional proportion between human and equipment or an environment(Navid et al. 2014). It is
applied to identification that appears to be a critical consideration in the forensic medicine and the victims of suicide, bomb blast, war, accident, earthquakes, and crimes
can be identified(Choudhary et al. 2013). Height, age, race, and gender, the big four parameters,
are considered to develop the anthropometrical databases.
These data can confirm the process of identification(Gocha
et al. 2013). Bones as the
body segments were mostly used for height estimation in different studies(Lee et al. 2014;
Macaluso and Lucena 2014; Meshram et al. 2014; Sl?dek et al. 2015), however
percutaneous length of bones was evaluated in several studies(Moorthy et al.
2014; Pal and Datta 2014; Ragavan and Chandran 2015; Shah
et al. 2015; Umesh and Kuppast 2011). So, designing a biological profile is
needed. This profile can confirm the process of final
identification(Mahakizadeh et al. 2016). However, lower limb measurements have more directly
correlation with height than upper limbs(Ahmed 2013).
Although several studies have been done for finding a relationship between height and bone measurements, there are limited reports
population(Gocha et al. 2013; Krishan et al. 2012a; Mohanty et al. 2013; Shende
et al. 2013; Singh et al. 2013). Some researches could evaluate the relation between
height and upper arm length (UAL) or percutaneous humerus length and define
formulas for this relationship in different age groups. According to the
results of these studies, the reliability and prediction power of the derived
formulae were different(Banik
2012; Mall et al. 2001; Salles et al. 2009). The purpose of this study was to estimate the height from the length of arm and forearm in Iranian population.
Materials and methods: A sample of 193 normal healthy Iranian volunteers (98
male and 95 female) were selected from medical students studying at Tehran University of Medical
participants ranged between 18–25 years old. All the subjects were right-handed and non-athletic.
According to standard ethics drawn by the Tehran University ethical committee for
human experimentation, subjects were examined for height, upper arm length, forearm length. All measurements were performed in standard position by standard
anthropological instruments. All measurements were done by the same observers
and with the same instruments to prevent any technical and inter-observer
Height (standing height): Height was measured in
centimeter. Each subject was asked to stand barefoot on a flat surface. Upright height was taken from the
vertex to the floor according to the anatomical position and Frankfurt Plane. Upper arm length (UAL): The length of arm was measured in 90
degrees bended elbow in persons with standing position.
The length of arm was defined as the distance between acromion end of clavicle and olecranon process. Forearm length (FAL): It is measured from head of radius to
tip of styloid process of radius using standard measuring tape. Left limb was used for measurements Statistical analysis: All data were entered to the
computer and SPSS 21 software was
used for data analysis.
Descriptive quantitative data were shown as mean± standard
deviation (SD). T-test was carried out to compare the data. Correlations between quantitative data
were reported and linear regression was used
to predict the relation between height and arm and forearm length Results: In this study, the height range
was 148 to 194 cm (170.49±9.79) in students of Tehran University of medical sciences (Table 1).
According to table 2, the mean height of male and female was 177.84±6.76 and 162.91± 5.84cm. The
mean weight of male students was 75.74 ± 14.39 and mean weight of female
students was 62.54 ±9.97 kg. The mean measurements of AL and FL in male
students were 33.41±2.89 and 29.24±2.22 cm respectively. The mean measurements
of AL and FL in female students were 30.65±2.25 and 26.36±1.94 cm.
The average, minimum, maximum and standard deviations of
the AL and FL measurements for Iranian males and females with addition of age,
height and weight measurement are shown in Table2. The male population has
significantly higher values
in all dimensions than the female population according to the
t-test results; there are significant
differences between all measurements in both genders (P = 0.001).
Because of the size difference between two genders, the
correlation coefficients and regression model need to be derived for the male
and the female separately. The relationship between the height and measured variables for both genders were analyzed with using the Pearson correlation coefficient. In all subjects (Total
group) analysis, all measurements showed significant correlation coefficients
with height (p < 0.05). Forearm length was found to be the variable with the highest correlation to height (r= 0.666, p=0.0001). In male group, AL (r= 0.579, p=0.0001) had highest relationship to height and FL was less relevant (r=0.544, p=0.0001). In female group, AL (r= 0.393, p=0.0001) had highest relationship to height but FL was less relevant (r=0.285, p=0.005) (Fig.1). Linear regression analysis was conducted to estimate height from measured variable. Regression equations have been computed for each sex and for each measurement separately (Table 3). Height was considered as the dependent variable and arm and FL as the independent variables. In total group, FL (R2= 0.444, p=0.0001) proved to be the highest determining factors in the regression equation (table 3). The AL showed the highest accuracy among the male group (R2=0.335, p=0.0001). Similarly, in female group, AL indicated that the highest accuracy (R2= 0.154, p=0.0001, table 3). The standard error of estimate (SEE) predicts the deviations of estimated height from the actual height. It ranges between ±5.54 to ±5.70 for males and between ±5.40 to ±5.62 for females. A lower value of SEE, indicates greater reliability in the estimated of height. Discussion Height estimation is one of the important elements for individual identification in forensic, legal medicine, anthropological researches and prediction of height from body segments remain from crimes and mass disasters(Krishan et al. 2012b; Patel et al. 2012; Srivastava and Sahai 2010). Several researches were carried out to estimate the relation between height and upper limb segments such as, arm, forearm in Iran and other populations(Akhlaghi et al. 2012; Ilayperuma et al. 2010; Rastogi et al. 2009; Shah et al. 2015; Srivastava and Sahai 2010). In this study, 193 cases were randomly selected from healthy population and the relationship between height and arm and forearm lengths were evaluated, and equations for height estimation from these parameters were showed. The mean of height, arm and forearm length were higher in males. The result has been obtained by Krishan et al(Krishan and Sharma 2007) Jasuja et al(Jasuja and Singh 2004) and Kanchan et al(Kanchan et al. 2010) were similar to ours. Our previous study showed that the correlation between height and AL of cases (r=0.716(. There was a correlation between height and FAL of male cases(r=0.631(. However, this correlation wasn't significant for female cases(r=0.231((Navid et al. 2014). On the other side Akhlaghi et al. (2012) found the correlation between FL and height (r=0.580). These results confirmed the differences between Iranian nations(Akhlaghi et al. 2012). FL was superior for predicting the height in comparison with other factors such as arm length (r=0.759)(Eftekhar Vaghefi et al. 2014) that it was similar to our result(r= 0.666). Generally results of this study showed that higher correlation of FL in both sexes exhibited coefficients with height. Linear regression is a reliable method for estimating the relation between height and body fragments(Ilayperuma et al. 2010). In this study the relation between height and AL and FL were found for all cases based on linear regression equation and forearm length proved to be the highest determining factors in the regression equation ( H= 98.78+ 2.57×FL (cm) with SEE=7.31 and R2 =0.444). Eftekhar Vaghefi et al achieved the same result in Iranian population(Eftekhar Vaghefi et al. 2014). According to our results, along with factors such as long bones, the height of the body can be estimated by anthropometric evaluation of arm and forearm length using the abovementioned formulas. In conclusion, the present study found that Male exhibit greater dimensions than the females for the arm and forearm length and the height. Height and arm and forearm length are positively and significantly correlated with each other (p<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived for estimation of height reliably and accurately that would be of immense value in the field of crime detection. The regression equation derived in the study can be used accurately and reliably for estimation of height in a diverse population group. Acknowledgment: We would like to thank medical students for their cooperation in this study.