Alfan [email protected]
comMother tongueinterference can be either positive or negativetoward the improvement andresult of student language acquisition. In foreign language developmentinstitute (FLDI),the use of mother tongue dialect is to ease speaker incommunicating since the native speaker like dialect and structure are differentand unfamiliar for the members. For this reason, the mother tongue is a means ofencouragement to communicate in English. this research is focus on the Englishacquisition and the interference of the mother tongue toward English in termof: grammar, vocabulary and intonation. The qualitative method is used toanalyze the data which the data are in the form of recording and transcriptionof student daily communication. The result shows that English is acquiredthrough formal and informal activity that is both conducted by the institutionand student association. In addition, since the members are allowed to useEnglish with mother tongue dialect and its attribute in informal activity, theinterference is inevitable in the form of grammatical, lexical andphonological.
1. IntroductionInforeign language acquisition, it is inevitable that mother tongue has a role onhow one learns and acquires new language. As an example, the mastery ofvocabulary and practice are more successful since less of new rule from targetlanguage (Manrique, 2013, p. 92), the mothertongue grammatical structure transferred into the target language, and mothertongue intonation used in target language etc. The examples show that the role of mother tongue interference can beeither positive or negative(Derakhshan & Karimi, 2015, p. 2113; Ellis, 1994,p.
311; Thyab, 2016)toward theimprovement and result of student language acquisition. FLDI,where the members are obligated to use English for twenty-four hours allows themember to speak English with their mother tongue dialect. The use of mothertongue dialect is used to ease the members in communicating since the nativespeaker like dialect and structure are different and unfamiliar for themembers. For this reason, the mother tongue is used as a means encourage themembers to communicate in English along the day. Furthermore,FLDI have set a goal to enable the members to be able communicate in Englishfor three months. To this purpose, the members are obligated to use English fortwenty for hours as possible as they can.
As a result, in everyday (informal)English communication the members use mother tongue dialect as well asstructure in speaking English. Consequently, since the mother tongue dialectand structure are different with English, there are some phonological andmorphological aspects that are different from recognized English (American andBritish English). From this phenomena, this research is going to focus on whatextend the mother tongue influence the language acquisition in term ofstructure, vocabulary and Intonation.Thereare some researches dealing with mother tongue interference toward the languageacquisition.
As an example “A Study of Mother Tongue Interference inPronunciation of College English Learning in China”(Luo, 2014). This researchdiscusses on how a mother tongue dialect interfere whether student and teacherpronunciation. The interference is in the form of how different dialectpronunciation between the mother tongue and English that make pronunciationconfusion when they speak or read aloud. Furthermore, Shobah and Prami(2014) analyze abouthow Bahasa Indonesia( L1) interferes student writing performance of Englishfunction word. The finding of the research is that the student writing productof English function word is interfered by Bahasa Indonesia structure.
Inaddition, Denizer(2017) studies abouthow mother tongue interference toward basic four skills in English (speaking,listening, reading and writing) and which skill has been interfered the most bymother tongue. However, my paper analyzes about the pronunciation, structureand vocabulary at once. As a result, this paper provides information aboutmother tongue interference not only in structure (vocabulary and grammar) butalso in oral production of the language (Pronunciation and intonation).
To this purpose thispaper examines: a) How do students acquire English Language? b) How doesstudent mother tongue interfere English? c) In what extend does the students’mother tongue interfere English language acquisition in terms of: i. Grammar ii. Vocabulary iii. IntonationThispaper is presented in the arrangement of: introduction, theoretical framework,methodology, discussion and conclusion. 2. Theoreticalframe workA. Secondlanguage acquisitionEllis proposes that second language acquisition intwo ways: naturalistic and instructed(Ellis, 1994, p. 12).
Naturalisticrefers to natural language learning through communication of real socialcontext. In this case, the language is acquired through the actual use of thelanguage and it is learnt naturally. Instructed refers to language acquisitionthrough the books reference and classroom instruction. This type ofacquisition, language is learnt formally with classroom setting where thelearners are required to demonstrate their mastery through test and assessment.B. Externaland internal factors in Second language acquisitionEllis (1997, pp.
4–5) argues thatthere are two factors on how learners acquire a language: internal and externalfactor. Internal factor is the factor that carried by the learners itself. Asan example, general knowledge of language which the learner has from his firstlanguage especially in structure. Furthermore, the language aptitude that thelearner has which affect the vary on how fast a learner acquire language thanothers. In short, the internal factor is the learner background knowledge oflanguage and the language learning capability.
External factor is factors that influence thelanguage learning from the surrounding of the learner: social milieu andlanguage input. Social milieu is social condition where the learning takeplace. The social milieu provides learners opportunities to hear and speak thetarget language. With the support environment, the learners acquire thelanguage better since they can get exposure through listening the language theycan practice it at the same time.
In addition, language input refers tolanguage sample that the student exposed. The language input can be from thelistening with its various kind such music, movie, and conversation etc.C. Mothertongue interference in second language acquisition According to Chomsky, the language structure of themother tongue remains the highest rank in terms of producing a language(Chomsky & Halle, 1968, p. 251).
For thisreason, when one acquires a new language the structure of the mother tonguewill influence the production of the new language. Dealing with therelationship between mother tongue and second language, Wilkins as cited in (Sumaranama, n.d., p. 3) states thatmother tongue can be either as negative and positive transfer.
Negativetransfer is when the mother tongue and target language have different structurethat may disturb one another or known as “interference”. On the other hand,positive transfer refers is when the two language has the same or similarstructure that can assist to learn the new language and known as”facilitation”. In the other word, the more the different between languages thebigger the interference and vice versa(Ellis, 1994, p. 300). Dulay et al (1982)as cited in (Lilasari& Suprastayasa, 2016)define interference as the unconscioustransfer causedby habit, of the basic structure of the mother tongue ontothe basic form of the target language. Lott (1983: 256) defines interference as ‘errors in the learner’s use ofthe foreign language that can be traced back to themother tongue’.
There aresome part of mother tongue including dialect, pronunciation that can interferetarget language. According to Berthold, Mangubhai&Batoriwicz (1997) ascited by Ofiong and Okon(2013, p. 1), (Skiba, 1997), theinterference takes place at the following levels: a. Phonological: can bedescribed in terms of phonetic, phonemic,allophonic ordistributional,and it also includes foreign accent. According to Fromkinet al (2009, p. 213) propose that inlanguage sound ( phonetic), intonation is a part of the analysis. As an example,the utterance “Paula Is here” canhave different meaning when it uses different intonation. With falling intonation, it means asstatement/ information, whereas with rising intonation it means as question orasking for information.
Unfortunately, Chomsky & Halle (1968, p. IX) state that thefield of intonation: contour, pith and tone, is still doesn’t have systematicrole of framework to analyze the intonation. (See Stockwell (1960),Bierwisch(1966), Lieberman (1966) for discussion of these topics(Chomsky & Halle, 1968, p. IX).b. Grammatical: is when elements such as word order, pronouns,determinants, tense, etc.
, from the native language influence the targetlanguage. This is very common phenomenawhere the mother language’s grammar structure is very strong in the learnermind, when learners try to acquire new language they unconsciously use the mothertongue grammar structure. In the same way, Chomsky and Halle (1968, p.
251) argue thatmother grammar structure remains the highest rank in term of producing sentenceeven in different language.As an example, the utterance “he will meet withforeigner” is incorrect in English since in English doesn’t need preposition”with” after the verb. However Indonesia “Diaakanbertemudengan orang asing” sothe word “dengan” is translated with “with” that in English is not necessary (Nurusshobah & W, 2014, p.
292). c. Lexical:when words are taken from the lending language. When the speakers do not have/know the expression of target language,they will tend to use their mother tongue to express it. Fromkin et al state that the language wespeak influence our cognition in some ways (Fromkin et al., 2009, p. 24). As an example,the word “jek, yeh, riah, siah, wa, pah,lah(Madurese)/ lho(Javanese)” that we cannot find in English makesthe speaker harder to identify how to say this expression in English.
d. Orthographic: when using the spelling rules of the mothertongue into the targetlanguage.3.
MethodIn this paper, qualitative method was implemented sincethe research is to seek the theories explanation dealing with the phenomenaobserved (Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen, Walker, & Razavieh, 2005,p. 420). The subject of the research wasFLDI members which the data was in form of FLDI members’ speaking recording.The data was transcribed and analyzed by using theories of mother tongueinterference toward second language acquisition. Furthermore, since Madurese islocal language, in presenting the result the researcher translated the Madureseinto Indonesian to ease the understanding of the reader.4. DiscussionA.
Student’English language acquisitionIn FLDI the students acquire the language throughformal and informal activity. for formal activity, the students get a classfrom the institution which the teachers have been graduated from undergraduatedegree. The lesson taught in formal activity are the basic four skills, grammarand vocabulary. This is as what Ellis(Ellis, 1994, p. 12) assumes asinstructed language acquisition where the language exposure is exposedstructurally by reference book and usually with the classroom setting.Similarly, Klein (1986) as cited in Ellis (Ellis, 1994, p. 12)argues that theacquisition which occur in formal way is categorized as guided languageacquisition which the language exposure is set to achieve a goal of languageacquisition.
Furthermore, there are various informal activitiesin FLDI to assist the members’ English acquisition. The informal activity isdivided into two: conducted by the members’ association and conducted by thesenior member in each room. The activities of the members’ association arespeech, debate, discussion, translation, watching English movie and tellingstory. Those activities are obligated for all members to participate and it is supervisedby the institution. In addition, for the activity conducted by the seniormember in each room is extending the material the students get from the formalclass conducted by the institution. To extend the material, the tutor emphasison practicing through speech, discussion, role play the material taught.On theother word, the activity conducted in each room is more relax and extending thepractice. Those informal activities, both conducted by themembers’ association and senior member are whatEllis(1997, p.
5) claims asexternal factor of second language acquisition. In this case the social milieuis the English speaking environment and various activities in FLDI. The socialmilieu of FLDI enables the student to acquire the language fluently since theycan practice the language. Moreover, for the language input, FLDI members get ahuge various input whether from other members or from the music, movie, speechetc.
the language input support student with numerous exposures that they canuse to communicate. In fact, Ellis(1997) suggests thateffective second language acquisition is by considering both internal andexternal factor to success in the language acquisition. Similarly, FLDI combinethese two factors of language acquisition where the members have averageEnglish skill and motivation in learning it (known from the test enrolment andinterview) which included to internal factor. In addition, as external factor Englishspeaking environment (social milieu) and many activities whether conductedformal and informal way (language input). As a result, the combination of thistwo factors makes the members are able to communicate fluently in English inthree months that become the target of the institution.B. Mothertongue interference in second language acquisitionAccording to Berthold, Mangubhai(1997) as cited by Ofiong and Okon(2013, p. 1), theinterference takes place in phonological, lexical, orthographic andgrammatical.
In this case, to answer the second and third research question theresearcher classifies the interference of FLDI members by three kind ofinferences proposed by Berthold et al: Phonological, lexical and grammatical.1. GrammaticalIngrammatical the interference of second language acquisition is occurred in:a. WordorderIn FLDI member dailyspeaking (informal) they tent to inverse subject after verb in affirmative andnegative sentence.
This kind of interference occurred because the speakerfollowed the Madurese sentence structure in their daily communication: “Verb +Complement + S”. · “don’tknow I am”(I don’t know) from Madurese (Ndak tau saya)· don’thave money I am,(I don’t have money) from Madurese (Ndakpunyauangsaya)· tellingI am…(I was telling…)From Madurese ( bilangsaya ……) · lazyI am(Iam lazy) from Madurese ( malassaya)· girlalways you(you always think about girl) from Madurese (cewekteruskamu)· notstrong I am look at her (she impresses me when I look ather)from Madurese (ndakkuatsayamelihatnya)in addition, theinversion did not only occur in the positive or negative sentence but also ininterrogative sentence:· Youlast night where to go?(where did you want to go lastnight) from Madurese (kamutadimalammaukemana?)· sewanna paying who is pah?(who will pay)from Madurese (Yangmaubayarsiapa?)b. Subjectverb agreement Most of the FLDImembers did not consciously apply the grammatical rule of English even exactlythey have master it very well. The mother tongue sentence structure of courseplays significant role on how the speaker arrange the sentence.
In Indonesia orMadurese sentence the structure has no change when the subject and tensesaredifferent. As a result, the members did not pay attention toward the verb andsubject agreement in English. · Iam order you…, (I am ordering you)· youeating one bucket, (you eat one bucket)· yesterdayI am meeting him, (yesterday, I met him)· Iam cannot go home2. Lexical(Vocabulary)In term of lexicalcategory especially in lending the word from the mother tongue, FLDI membersnever use mother tongue language in their communication rather they use Englishword with additional either affixes or suffixes from mother tongue a. OmissionFLDI members omit somesentence component which become important part of the English sentencestructure: Subject and state of being verb (to be).
This erasure was influencedby Madurese structure which has no to be and in some cases omit the subject inpassive voice. · Givingrice at the time (I have been given rice at the time)from Madurese (di kasihnasiwaktuitu)· malangexpensive rice,(in Malang, rice is expensive) from Madurese(Malang,nasimahal)· minethat one,(That one is mine) from madurese(punyasayaitu)· girlalways you. (you always think about girl)from Madurese(cewekteruskamuitu)even there is anomission in each utterance, which of course effect the meaning of the utterancebut the listener has shared the understanding about what the speaker mean. Inthe other word, they have understood each other dealing with utterance theyspeak which might be confusing for the listener outside this community. b. AdditionThis feature ofaddition is very visible since it is unique belong to each language in this caseMadurese. The addition is usually in the form of suffix or affix which areattached to English word.
Two thousand-an,from Madurese (Duaribuan) how much-an?, from Madurese (berapaan?)wathat one …, from Madurese (itu yang itu)make me confuse reh,from Madurese (membuatsayabingungsaja)makcannot silent, from Madurese (kokndakbisadiam)sewannapaying who is pah, from Madurese (Siapa yang maubayar?) yesterday yesterday-nahthat one still, from Madurese (kemarin-kemarin-nyaitu)not coming-comingfromMadurese (ndakdatang-datang)Giving rice at the timelhafromMadurese (sudah di kasihnasiwaktuitu)Some of those additionsare different from Javanese and Indonesian language. As a result, the one who mastersEnglish but his mother tongue is not Madurese doesn’t not understand thisutterance. 3. PhonologicalIn phonologicalinterference the researcher divided into two: Pronunciation and Intonation· That/ðæt/pronounced as /dæk/,· howabout/ha???ba?t/ pronounced as /hob??k/, · don’t/do?nt/pronounced as /d??k/ inpronunciation the FLDI members tend to use mother tongue way of pronunciationrather than using English pronunciation. Such as they used /d/ rather than /ð/,/??/ or /o/ than /a?/, /??/ than /o?/.
This is in accordance with the findingof Subandowo(2017) that Indonesianstudent produce more error in vowel sound rather than consonant sound.4. IntonationAs the mother tonguestructure interfere the target language, the speakers tend to use mother tongueintonation as well to speak. In FLDI, the members used Madurese intonation whenspeaking English for informal activity. Thus, stressing, raising and falling ofthe intonation of English utterance are totally interfered by the mothertongue.
In the other word, they use Madurese accented English in their dailycommunication. · I don’t know either (raising)when…, from Madurese interference:Sayandak tau juga (raising) kapan…· after diniyahexam (raising), I see, · he is mine (rising + hold) actually, from Madurese interference:Diapunyasaya (raising + hold) sebenarnya· spend rice (raising + hold) only you, from Madureseinterference:Menghabiskanberas (raising + hold) sajakamu.5. ConclusionIn FLDI, students acquire English through formal andinformal activity. Formal activity is the activity that is conducted by theinstitution which the English teaching and learning activity is in theclassroom. Moreover, for the informal activity is student practice and learnthe language in their room with their roommate for twenty-four hours. Inaddition, the informal activity is held by the student association byconducting English activity such as debate, speech, discussion and so on. withthese abundant exposure of English, students are able to communicate inEnglish.
However, since the students’ mother tongue isMadurese, there are some interferences in term of grammatical, lexical andphonological. In grammatical, the interference is in the form of word order andsubject verb agreement. Furthermore, in lexical, the interference is in theform of addition and omission toward the target language. Besides, inintonation, the mother tongue intonation entirely interferes the targetlanguage since the FLDI member use Madurese accented English for their dailycommunication.
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