All that contain the pattern of roles and

All over the world in recent decades major changes have occurred in the composition of the workforce. Due to economic and cultural reasons, women workforce has increased significantly in rural as well as urban areas of Subcontinent as well. Though in our setup, most of the rural women are either self employed, casual workers or they have involved themselves in agriculture (Srivastava N, 2010). As for now, it has been that, many employees are indulging in dual-earning lifestyle which engages both partners in work to share the responsibility of family caregiving (Friedman and Greenhaus, 2000). Ironically though, Dual-earning, by itself, has been identified as one of the positive factors for marriage satisfaction (Ayub, N., & Iqbal, S. (2012). Numerous scholars (e.g Edwards & Rothbard, 2000; Frone, 2003) have stated that altering social demographics, changing family role expectations, shifting family structures, aging workforce, as well as current technological advancement, growing globalization, and international business competitiveness have added to a blurring of boundaries between the different domain of families and employment due to more permeability among these domains. These shifting trends of demographics amplified involvement of men in the family (Pleck, 1985) and increased the awareness of employees about the quality of life (Zedeck & Mosier, 1990) which is giving birth to the need of research in different domains of employment and domestic life.However, work and family spheres are of relevant importance to an individual. In the light of human ecology theory, job and domestic domains are micro-systems that contain the pattern of roles and activities of interpersonal relationships that are practiced through face to face interactions (Bronfenbrenner, 1989). In the past twenty-five years, the researches have provided with an ample literature on the combination of work and family, through two different but interrelated domains of one’s lives (JH Greenhaus, 2003). The employees values are changing through the escalating prevalence of dual-earner partners (Greenhaus & Singh, 2004) or the single parents (Bond , Thompson, Galinsky, & Prottas, 2002) in the work patterns that leads to distortion in the gender roles. In Greenhaus and Boutell’s study (as cited in Willis, O’Conner, & Smith, 2008), work-family conflict is defined as a consequence of inconsistent demands between the roles at work and in the family. In other words, work-family conflict exists when the expectations related to a certain role do not meet the requirements of the other role, preventing the efficient performance of that role (Greenhaus, Tammy, & Spector, 2006). Therefore, it could be said that the conflict between work and family domains tends to stem from the conflict between the roles. Several studies reveal that work and family are not two separate domains as they are highly interdependent, having a dynamic relation with one another. While family life is affected by the factors at work, the reverse is also experienced (Trachtenberg, Anderson, & Sabatelli, 2009; Namasivayam & Zhao, 2007). Balancing work and family is a challenge in an adult’s life. The increase in dual-career couples and single-parent households and the decrease in traditional, single-earner families mean that responsibilities for work, housework, and childcare are no longer confined to traditional gender roles (Byron, 2005). Further, employees find themselves struggling to juggle the competing demands of work and family. The excessive pressure and scarcity of free time may adversely affect their ability to cope. This can lead to dissatisfaction, absenteeism, poor personal relations, and decreased work performance (Davidson & Cooper)Job Demands:Job demands are physical, social or organizational aspects of the job that require constant physical and psychological efforts and hence are associated with certain physiological and psychological outcomes (e.g exhaustion) (Schaufeli, W. & Bakker, 2004). Job demands include high work pressure, overload, emotional demands, poor environmental conditions (Demerouti, et al, 2001). A job demand may lead to positive as well as negative outcomes depending on the demand itself as well as on the individual’s ability to cope with it. Positive responses may be motivation, stimulation or job-satisfaction while negative responses can be depression, anxiety or burnout. Job demands have been identified as one of the most common sources of work-related stress (workplace health and safety, Queensland, 2012). Job demands can be characterized in several categories, and in a variety of different ways. But it is important to note that these categorisation systems are not discrete and, therefore, are inter-related in their meaning to a certain degree. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, stated four types of job demands in their 2010 Work-related Stress Report: quantitative demands (e.g. time pressure or the amount of work) cognitive demands that impinge primarily on the brain processes involved in information processing (e.g. the difficulty of the work) emotional demands which refer primarily to the effort needed to deal with organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions; or physical demands that are primarily associated with the musculoskeletal system (i.e. motoric and physical aspects of behavior (e.g. dynamic and static loads).Regarding physical demands, it is of note that Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent one of the most common occupational problems. MSDs can negatively impact one’s quality of life.Sorour and El-Maksoud (2012) conducted a study whose aim was to investigate the relationship between MSDs, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses. The researchers hypothesized that increased job demands were associated with more MSDs and consequently higher levels of burnout. The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 58 nurses working in the emergency departments of Zagazig University Hospital and Al-Ahrar, Hospital Egypt from October to December 2010, using a cross-sectional analytic design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results revealed that 32.8% of the nurses were overweight and 17.2% were obese. The most common sites of pain were the neck (67.2%), shoulder (65.5%), and lower back (63.8%). Lower back pain was the most common site affected (72.4%) with a mean 5.1 on a scale ranging from 0 to 13. A positive correlation existed between the scores of job demand and burnout (r = 0.340, p < 0.01), and the number of reported MSDs with the score of job demand (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis identified the score of job demand and the severity of lower back pain as positive independent predictors of the burnout whereas the job demand score was the independent predictor of the number of MSDs. This study documents an increased prevalence of MSDs among emergency nurses, as predicted by increased job demand and associated with a higher level of burnout. Hence, they concluded that it is important for hospital and nursing administrators to address the factors contributing to job stress and burnout, with emphasis on job satisfaction and work organization to alleviate the burden of psychosocial factors in this setting.Ergonomic principles defined in the ISO 10075 presented four main categories of sources of job demands, including: task requirements, work equipment, physical work environment, social and organisational factors. Task requirements include all factors related to job content and control, workload and work schedule (e.g. working rotating shifts or permanent night work, irregular work schedules, role ambiguity and lack of stimulating work). Work equipment compromises of all factors related to work equipment and factors related to ergonomic workplace facilities. MS Butt ?(2012) mentioned physical work environment as one of the factors, which includes lightning, noise, climate conditions, vibration, weather conditions and smell . The author concluded that Noise level should be limited to 85 dB (A) for these industries and lighting should be improved at workplace to prevent workers from getting physical, psychological, visual and hearing problems. However, T. Shea (2011) could not establish a link between the physical work environment and psychological health in employees in her study for Australian Centre for Research in Employment and Work (ACREW). M Sinokki (?2011) identified Social factors, for instance, relationships (e.g. among colleagues or among employee and superior), team structures, social contacts (e.g. isolated workplaces, customer relations) and conflicts. She concluded that Social relations are very important factors, also affecting work motivation and sense of esteem. In contrast, poor team climate and lack of social support generate negative emotions and attitudes towards work . I Nada et. al. (2012) enumerated Organisational factors, for example, cultural standards, structure of communication, organisational principles, and leadership style, all contributing to four primary factors i.e. psychological demand (job demand), decision latitude (job control), social support and job insecurity. She found significant associations between occupational stress and decision latitude; psychological job demand; and job insecurity. However, there was no significant association between occupational stress level and social support.Cox and Griffiths (1995) have described a more detailed classification of job demands. They differentiated between the following eight aspects: Job content, workload and work pace, work schedule, control, environment and equipment, organisational culture and function, interpersonal relationship at work, role in organization, career development, and home-work interface. Broadly, job content referred to the lack of variety or short work cycles, under use of skills, fragmented or meaningless work, high uncertainty, and frequent contact with the public. Workload and work pace was defined as high levels of time pressure, work overload or under load, machine pacing, continually subjected to deadlines. Work schedule included shift working, night shifts, unpredictable hours, inflexible work schedules, long or unsociable hours. Control meant the lack of control over workload or pacing or low participation in decision making. Environment and equipment included inadequate equipment availability, suitability or maintenance; poor environmental conditions (such as lack of space, poor lighting or excessive noise). Organizational culture and function comprise of poor communication, lack of definition of organizational objectives, low levels of support for problem solving and personal development. Interpersonal relationships at work represented social or physical isolation, interpersonal conflict, lack of social support, poor relationships with superiors, bullying or harassment. Role in organization/ Career development was defined as role ambiguity, role conflict, and responsibility for people, career stagnation and uncertainty, job insecurity, under promotion or over promotion, poor pay, and low social value to work. Last, but not least, home-work interface referred to conflicting demands of work and home and low support at home and dual career problems.Job Demands has been subjected to much research & debate in the past. Its correlation with various variables, including work-family conflict, has been discussed at length. In a study, Nico W. Van Yperen and Mariët Hagedoorn (2003) evaluated the survey data of 555 nurses to investigate the association of high Job Demands with fatigue and motivation in light of varying Job Control and Job Social Support. They concluded that job control in particular reduces fatigue in highly demanding jobs, whereas high levels of instrumental support produce elevated levels of intrinsic motivation, regardless of the level of job control and job demands.Research findings from several countries suggest that even the academic work has become comparatively stressful, with potentially serious consequences for the workforce and the quality of higher education. An article reported the findings of a study that examined work demands, work-life balance and wellbeing in UK academic staff. Job demands and levels of psychological distress were high and working during evenings and weekends was commonplace. Most academics surveyed, however, were at least moderately satisfied with their jobs. Work-life balance was generally poor and most respondents wished for more separation between their work and home lives. Academics who reported more work-life conflict and perceived a greater discrepancy between their present and ideal levels of work-life integration tended to be less healthy, less satisfied with their jobs, and more likely to have seriously considered leaving academia. On the whole, academics that perceived more control over their work, more schedule flexibility and more support from their institutions had a better work-life balance. These factors, however, failed to moderate the relationship between work demands and perceptions of conflict between work and home (Kinman and Jones, 2008).According to the influential Job Demands–Control (JD-C) model developed by Karasek (1979; Karasek and Theorell, 1990), job strain is expected to result from high job demands and low job control as well as an interaction between both job characteristics. Klaus-Helmut (2011) used this model and confirmed that focused measure of control and the traditional measure of decision latitude represent distinct, yet correlated factors. Furthermore, findings revealed a significant interaction effect between job demands and control on all outcomes considered.He concluded that Extending the opportunities of health care workers to control work scheduling and the way of performing given tasks can make them less vulnerable against the adverse effects of high job demands.Also, in this regard, Chou H. Y. (2012) concluded that job demands, resources and emotional labour can predict nurses' well-being. He further recommended a need to address organizational support and training programmes to enhance job satisfaction and reduce emotional exhaustion among nurses. Lourel M. et. al. (2008), studied the Relationships Between Psychological Job Demands, Job Control and Burnout Among Firefighters. They used Karasek's (1979) Demand-Control Model and hypothesized that emotional exhaustion will be positively associated with job demands (e.g., psychological or emotional demands), and negatively associated with job control; while Depersonalization will be positively associated with job demands and negatively associated with job control; Moreover, Personal accomplishment will be positively associated with job control (e.g., decisional latitude). They proved their hypothesis with significance except that the personal accomplishment did not show any association with job control. Jonge et. al. (2010) observed that Significant demand/control interactions were found for mental and emotional demands, but not for physical demands. The association between job demands and job satisfaction was positive in case of high job control, whereas this association was negative in case of low job control. In addition, the relation between job demands and psychosomatic health symptoms/sickness absence was negative in case of high job control and positive in case of low control.Based on, another, job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001), a study examined the different ways that the personal resource of mindfulness reduces stress. Structural equation modeling based on data from 415 Australian nurses showed that mindfulness relates directly and negatively to work stress and perceptions of emotional demands as well as buffering the relation of emotional demands on psychological stress. This study contributed to the literature by employing empirical analysis to the task of unravelling how personal resources function within the JD-R model. It also introduced mindfulness as a personal resource in the JD-R model. (Grover SL. 2017)The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was also tested by Bakker (2003) in a study among 3,092 employees working in 1 of 4 different home care organizations. The central assumption in the model was that burnout develops when certain job demands are high and when job resources are limited because such negative working conditions lead to energy depletion and undermine worker motivation and learning opportunities, respectively. A series of multi group structural equation modeling analyses provided strong evidence for the JD-R model. Specifically, results showed that job demands were primarily and positively related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas job resources were primarily related to cynicism (negatively) and professional efficacy (positively). A study examined the role of three personal resources (self-efficacy, organizational-based self-esteem, and optimism) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The authors hypothesized that personal resources (1) moderate the relationship between job demands and exhaustion, (2) mediate the relationship between job resources and work engagement, and (3) relate to how employees perceive their work environment and well-being. Hypotheses were tested among 714 Dutch employees. Results showed that personal resources did not offset the relationship between job demands and exhaustion. Instead, personal resources mediated the relationship between job resources and engagement/exhaustion and influenced the perception of job resources. (Xanthopoulou et al., 2007)Regarding JD-R, Schaufeli concluded that high job demands lead to strain and health impairment (the health impairment process), and that high resources lead to increased motivation and higher productivity (the motivational process). (Bauer and Ha?mmig, 2013)