Although Beccaria focused on the classical theory of crime he was morefocused on the reform of criminal law and the punishment inflicted on theoffender rather than analyzing crime and the behavior of criminals.

Geographic,statistical, and cartographic schools of criminology all fall under theecological school of criminology. Developed by another Cesare, Cesare Lombroso,ecological theory looks at the interrelationships between organisms and theirenvironment (Hagen, 2017). Human organisms and the environment in which theylive refers to the interrelationship between humans and ecology. It was thefirst time that statistics were applied to explain criminology. Beccaria used atheoretical and philosophical approach to criminology whereas the ecologicalapproach was more scientific. Andre Guerry also considered the firststatistician, used the use of statistics.

He claimed that people commit crimesbased on their environment and their geographical housing. The school; ofecology deals with the biological factors of criminal behavior. The ecologicalschool was labeled the statistical because it sought to apply data andstatistics when finding the causes of criminality.

At the end of the eighteenthcentury, classical criminology came from enlightenment ideals. The classical theory stated that menhave free will and are rational in their choices to commit crime. If they tooka physical approach they believed that genetics played a role in criminalbehavior and this resulted from a defect that could be measured. In this senseenvironmental problems such as toxic waste might contribute to hereditaryproblems of the brain. Exposure to such substances could cause nerve or braindamage and be a contributing factor for committing crime. Taking these theoriesinto consideration it is believed that abnormalities which may be inheritedmake people who are not criminal and people who are criminals physiologicallydifferent from one another. Biological theorists consider the individualdefendant when handing out punishment and uses this consideration when decidinghow harsh punishment should be.

“The major change from the Classical theoriesto the biological theories is the emphasis on reformation rather thanpunishment” (Lawteacher, 2017).     Several similarities and differences separatethe ecological/biological theories of criminology. Crime, due to biologicaldefects is the biological theory as to why a person commits a crime. Thistheory suggest that a person did not make a rational decision to commit a crime;it was because of physical abnormalities. In contrast, according to theclassical theory a person has free will when deciding to commit a crime and notbecause of their biological make-up. The classical theory puts fullresponsibility on the offender.

Environmental factors play a big role in a person’scriminal behavior. The neighborhoods they live in. Whether they are working orunemployed and living in less than prime areas. All these factors come in toplay with the ecological theory whereas the classical view thinks that when itcomes to solving crime, all concentration should be directed at the crimeitself. The same punishment is given to everyone who commits the same crime nottaking into consideration the individuals circumstances.

It does not factor inthe offenders past record or in the case of self-defense. With the concentrationsolely on the criminal act, individual differences between the individuals wasignored. With this school of thought, retarded people, children, women, andfirst time offenders were all given the same punishment without looking at theindividual circumstances.

They were all considered rational and competent underthe law.     Under the ecological viewpoint, aneighborhood is similar to an ecosystem. When an ecosystem experiences changes toofast for the environment to keep up it becomes out of balance anddysfunctional. The people inside of it become dysfunctional and neighborhoodsstart to feel the impact. Social scientists are hard pressed to explain why individuals.

Normal in every aspect, living in less than satisfactory social environments,change from their normal behavior and commit crimes. Recent research withdevelopments in both evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology give promiseas to why crime and deviance occur naturally in areas where individualsinteract without adding genetic influences. The classical theory would not takeinto consideration these environmental changes and the impact it had on peoplewho commit crime. Everyone would be punished the same no matter thecircumstances (Criminology, 2017).      Classicalcriminology still has relevance in modern day society. Classical thought had asubstantial impact such as punishments fitting the crime in modern day society.This helped form a foundation for ideas within the criminal justice system. Wesee parts of the classical principles such as deterrence that are stillintroduced in our systems today.

With programs and government policies focusingon getting tougher on crime, this is a direct result of the classical school ofcriminology. There are exceptions such as crimes of passion, where people donot consider the consequences at all and in these circumstances, there is nodeterrent. Classical ideology is still being used in modern day criminology butthe original principles have been modified some because the thought of arational criminal in the 21st century is unheard of (Different Theorieson Crime, 2017).  Although Beccaria focused on the classical theory of crime he was morefocused on the reform of criminal law and the punishment inflicted on theoffender rather than analyzing crime and the behavior of criminals. Geographic,statistical, and cartographic schools of criminology all fall under theecological school of criminology. Developed by another Cesare, Cesare Lombroso,ecological theory looks at the interrelationships between organisms and theirenvironment (Hagen, 2017). Human organisms and the environment in which theylive refers to the interrelationship between humans and ecology.

It was thefirst time that statistics were applied to explain criminology. Beccaria used atheoretical and philosophical approach to criminology whereas the ecologicalapproach was more scientific. Andre Guerry also considered the firststatistician, used the use of statistics. He claimed that people commit crimesbased on their environment and their geographical housing. The school; ofecology deals with the biological factors of criminal behavior. The ecologicalschool was labeled the statistical because it sought to apply data andstatistics when finding the causes of criminality. At the end of the eighteenthcentury, classical criminology came from enlightenment ideals.

The classical theory stated that menhave free will and are rational in their choices to commit crime. If they tooka physical approach they believed that genetics played a role in criminalbehavior and this resulted from a defect that could be measured. In this senseenvironmental problems such as toxic waste might contribute to hereditaryproblems of the brain. Exposure to such substances could cause nerve or braindamage and be a contributing factor for committing crime.

Taking these theoriesinto consideration it is believed that abnormalities which may be inheritedmake people who are not criminal and people who are criminals physiologicallydifferent from one another. Biological theorists consider the individualdefendant when handing out punishment and uses this consideration when decidinghow harsh punishment should be. “The major change from the Classical theoriesto the biological theories is the emphasis on reformation rather thanpunishment” (Lawteacher, 2017).     Several similarities and differences separatethe ecological/biological theories of criminology. Crime, due to biologicaldefects is the biological theory as to why a person commits a crime. Thistheory suggest that a person did not make a rational decision to commit a crime;it was because of physical abnormalities. In contrast, according to theclassical theory a person has free will when deciding to commit a crime and notbecause of their biological make-up.

The classical theory puts fullresponsibility on the offender. Environmental factors play a big role in a person’scriminal behavior. The neighborhoods they live in. Whether they are working orunemployed and living in less than prime areas. All these factors come in toplay with the ecological theory whereas the classical view thinks that when itcomes to solving crime, all concentration should be directed at the crimeitself.

The same punishment is given to everyone who commits the same crime nottaking into consideration the individuals circumstances. It does not factor inthe offenders past record or in the case of self-defense. With the concentrationsolely on the criminal act, individual differences between the individuals wasignored.

With this school of thought, retarded people, children, women, andfirst time offenders were all given the same punishment without looking at theindividual circumstances. They were all considered rational and competent underthe law.     Under the ecological viewpoint, aneighborhood is similar to an ecosystem. When an ecosystem experiences changes toofast for the environment to keep up it becomes out of balance anddysfunctional. The people inside of it become dysfunctional and neighborhoodsstart to feel the impact. Social scientists are hard pressed to explain why individuals.Normal in every aspect, living in less than satisfactory social environments,change from their normal behavior and commit crimes. Recent research withdevelopments in both evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology give promiseas to why crime and deviance occur naturally in areas where individualsinteract without adding genetic influences.

The classical theory would not takeinto consideration these environmental changes and the impact it had on peoplewho commit crime. Everyone would be punished the same no matter thecircumstances (Criminology, 2017).      Classicalcriminology still has relevance in modern day society. Classical thought had asubstantial impact such as punishments fitting the crime in modern day society.This helped form a foundation for ideas within the criminal justice system.

Wesee parts of the classical principles such as deterrence that are stillintroduced in our systems today. With programs and government policies focusingon getting tougher on crime, this is a direct result of the classical school ofcriminology. There are exceptions such as crimes of passion, where people donot consider the consequences at all and in these circumstances, there is nodeterrent. Classical ideology is still being used in modern day criminology butthe original principles have been modified some because the thought of arational criminal in the 21st century is unheard of (Different Theorieson Crime, 2017).        

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