America has evolved since the eighteenth century leading to devolution. There have been reforms on the boundaries and balance existing between the state and national government. The national government has transformed substantially as its role has expanded. The history of democracy dates back from dual federalism whereby the constitution divided power between the national and state government.

The national government was mandated to foresee foreign policy, commerce and national defence (Beer 9). Economic regulation, criminal law and local issues were the roles assigned to the state government. There were arguments that the state government had more power over the federal government and the jurisdiction of both state and federal courts (Beer 11).

The national government was a ratification from the state government constitution and it addressed the issue of the roles of the courts. The fourteenth amendment came in to address the three main disputing clauses. The supreme court played a critical role in reducing the self-given power of the national government especially on matters pertaining commerce (Beer 13).

The amendment upheld the sovereignty of the American people to delegate powers.Political environment was changed by Industrialization and globalization making industrial economy overwhelm the control of state governments. The national government had more resources to deal with the change through coming up with regulatory policies.

America expanded its global economic power that attracted worldwide trading and business relations (Beer 18). The conflict about unfunded mandates of the state government as imposed by the federal government with the backup of the congress was resolved by the Supreme Court which gave out an interpretation of the Congress’ authority over commerce.During the twentieth century, the national government was integrated with the local and state government creating cooperative federalism. There was no boundary between the governments until new federalism picked up. With the help of scholars and political leaders, state governments managed to retrieve power from the national government and devolution was founded (Beer 19).

The federal government had assumed more power than its capacity making it excessively intrusive and less accountable. State governments served the citizens better because of the close contact but some issues required more attention and power. The court helped in calming down the disputing environment by striking out poorly formulated laws. The court protected the viability of the state and local governments especially from oppression by the federal government.

The court advocated for better approaches to social and economic problems by using the states as “social laboratories” (Beer 20). This strategy minimizes the risks that the nation is exposed to, promoting federalism by encouraging state governments to brainstorm their ideas in order to come up with innovative and effective solutions to problems encompassing education, urban bright, crime and security.


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