Around the world, 450 million people are currently dealing with a mental health disorder or a mental illness. Out of four people, one of them will be affected by a mental disorder, placing this to be the highest cause of physical illness and disabilities.

Mental health disorders affects thoughts, behaviors, or emotions, and the way people function in their daily lives. These illnesses range from a wide variety of problems such as anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, depression, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders. Mental illness can be caused by life experiences of stress, abuse, or a traumatic brain injury. It normal to have the feeling of nervousness or uneasiness. However, an anxiety disorder is when too much stress causes uncontrolled fears or anxiousness. This can then lead to having an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or phobia. OCD is the state of obsessing, having upsetting thoughts, or the urge to have certain behaviors. Panic disorders can lead to feelings of endangerment, even when there is no danger around, lost of control, and panic attacks.

Fast heartbeat, chest pain, stomach pain, and difficulty breathing are physical symptoms that occur. When post-traumatic stress disorder affects a person, they get flashbacks of an event happening again, insomnia, and outbursts of anger. A person can get PTSD subsequently living through a traumatic event. The strong fear of something that is essentially harmless, is a phobia. When experiencing something that a person has a phobia of, they experience trembling, panic, fear, and a feeling or desire to get away. Phobias normally initiate during child or teen years, and can lead into adulthood. During later teen years or early adulthood of a person, bipolar disorders can arise (rarely in childhood). Bipolar disorders (also known as manic depression) dire when people have sudden or unusual changes of their mood, the inability to properly think, and abrupt shifts in their energy.

One minute they can be happy and another, feel extremely sad or hopeless. A person diagnosed with bipolar depression go through high moods called “mania” and lows moods, known as “depression”. Extreme episodes of bipolar illness, in a patient can include delusions and hallucinations. In order to be properly diagnosed with a bipolar illness, hypomania or mania must occur at least once in the patients years. Bipolar illness can affect your daily life, therefore it is important to be properly diagnosed so you can treat it. According to Center for Discovery, before adulthood at least 20% of all teens encounter depression. Everyone gets the feeling of being upset or sad, however depression is much more than that. It is the constant feeling of always being sad or feeling “empty”, losing interest in favorite activities, having haunting feelings of guilt, the feeling as if you are worthless or not meeting standards, or thinking about suicide and death.

Not only are you affected mentally by depression but also physical illnesses can arise. The inability to sleep (insomnia), oversleeping, under eating, eating too much, as well as recurring aches and digestive problems.  There are many factors that contribute to causing depression. It can include genetics, environmental, and psychological factors. For example, if a family member had depression, you would be at a higher risk of having it as well. Environmental factors can include being around negative or dangerous situations and psychological factors can be difficulties in families or relationships, physical illnesses, or major changes in life. A person with a personality disorder may not recognize or come to terms with the fact that they have a serious problem.

They may even believe others are the reason for the way they act. When it comes to work, relationships, or social events they may have problems or may be limited on what they can do. This disorder can affect a person by causing them to have unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and the inability to function normally.

According to Mayo Clinic, there are three clusters of types of personality disorders. The first one is Cluster A, where patients are characterized by odd, abnormal ways of thinking or acting. These types of patients can have symptoms such as pervasive or suspicion of others, beliefs that others are trying to hurt them, and extreme anger or hostility towards slight insults.

Cluster A patients can be diagnosed with Paranoid personality, Schizoid personality, or Schizotypal personality disorders. The second is known as cluster B, which is where patients are characterized as overly emotional and dramatic. Symptoms can include lying and stealing of others, aggressive behaviors, or being irresponsible.

People with cluster B, can be diagnosed with Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic personality disorders. The last cluster type is cluster C, which includes patients who have fearful and anxious characteristics. Cluster C symptoms include sensitivity to criticism, being timid and isolated, and fear of rejection and disapproval. Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsives can be diagnosed with cluster C patients. Usually during teen or adult years, a person will begin experiencing these symptoms.

Factors that can contribute to causing this illness are genetics and environmental. Psychotic disorder is a serious mental illness that causes you to have hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations including having perceptions, such as hearing, feeling, or seeing things that are not there. Delusions can be when a patient has beliefs that others are against them, or an evil plot is beginning. One of the most common type of a psychotic disorder is Schizophrenia. According to National Institute of Mental Health, Schizophrenia can occur through the ages of 16 to 30. There are three categories that the symptoms of Schizophrenia fall into. The first category are positive symptoms and this is when patients suffer from the loss of aspects of real life; they have have delusions or hallucinations.

The second category is known as negative symptoms and this is when abnormal emotions and behaviors occur. Symptoms that it can lead to are no emotions when speaking and losing the feeling of pleasure in life. Cognitive symptoms are the last category of symptoms. When patients experience these symptoms, they may notice their memory or process of thinking is changing.

They may also notice trouble paying attention, not being able to make decisions, or difficulty understanding things.There are many treatments that can help to treat or even cure these mental disorders. For anxiety disorder, some types of treatments include psychotherapy, support groups, self-help, and medications. For a bipolar disorder, treatments such as medications and psychotherapy can help. When a person has a personality disorder, common treatments include medications and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy.

Lastly, a person with psychotic disorder can get treated with medications and psychotherapy. Mental disorders are real and severe illnesses that people suffer from. These disorders (or illnesses) affect the moods, behaviors, and thinking of individuals. Some illnesses can include anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, depression, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders. Because they are very serious and can lead to problems such as physical illnesses, it is extremely important for a patient to find the right treatments.


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