a starting point, participation and mass collaboration can be compared. Any
collaboration model requires a certain degree of transparency. Participation in
this sense can be seen as a traditional form of participation in a joint
activity, seeking common solutions for problems and challenges that are
affecting a number of people or the society as a whole. On the one hand, new
media enables government administrations to use new instruments of mass
collaboration to find solutions to outstanding problems. On the other hand,
high numbers of participants in collaborative civic work do not necessarily
produce expected results.

relevant initiatives’ chapter is the collaborative projects for innovation. For
many years, in many geographical and economic environments, the innovation is
the driving force behind economic growth and wealth in society (Wise, Paton, & Gegenhuber,
2012). The concept of an
innovation community generally addresses all people who are willing to provide
solutions for change in many fields. The advantage of open participation is
that new ideas, which extend well beyond the scope of traditional
organizational thinking, might be surfaced by the community (Kube, Hilgers, Koch, &
Füller, 2015).
The challenging part is determining whether these new ideas can actually be
incorporated in effective problem solving. This is especially true for
hierarchical decision structures, where the public administration reserves the
right to decide which ideas to capture, and which to reject. However, if too
many ideas for solutions and changes are rejected, it is very likely that the
community will be distracted.

concept was used by the U.S. administration during the Open Government Dialogue
The goal of this project was to solicit suggestions from citizens for
improvement of the federal government and its agencies. The discussion allowed
everyone’s free opinion to be expressed as long as it was legally and morally
appropriate. In May 2009, the Obama administration started this participatory
initiative, which gave citizens the opportunity to submit their ideas, discuss
and refine others’ ideas, and vote for the best ones.

the strong innovative potential of these methods, they offer the chance to
integrate collaboration concepts and the potential latent within the informed
mass (i.e., the citizens) into the administrative reform process now facing a
majority of states (Alport & Macintyre, 2007;
Aspen Institute, 2009).
Again, this could successfully be implemented with the help of innovation

Conclusions. Lessons
learned from CEE Region

an inconsistent state strategy, the bottom-up initiatives in CEE region should became
the focal point of interest. Potential and existing collaborators must realize
that their contributions are valued, and that their work has recognizable
impact on the public administration that runs the collaboration platform. Even
though users may not be academic experts, but many have in-depth knowledge on
the issues they decide to contribute to. Exchanging knowledge and ideas
enhances the knowledge base of the completely collaborative community. A
diversity of users is desirable, as innovation is triggered by merging
different opinions, standpoints, and ideas.

that drive users to participate voluntarily and actively in a collaborative
production system might include the following motivations, among others:

to connect a community and set up new networks;

to achieve respect from others and good status for qualitative contributions;

to contribute in areas that are of major importance to others;

to have access to latest evolutions in a certain area; and

an proactive attitude and the aspiration towards progress.

a good mixture of motivating factors and key drivers will lead to successful
projects, as different users have different needs.

critical factor in success is the number and quality of contributions. Collaborative
production systems in e-government can attract input from external
collaborators and produce output from the result. In public administration
circles, this can be applied to policy-making as well as service delivery.

Collaboration does not need mass participation;
indeed, even the most successful collaboration systems, such as Wikipedia or
Linux, are based on high-quality contributions by a 


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