As we know all matters are made ofatoms , there are about 100 kinds of atoms in the universe according to theperiodic table . The properties of materials depends on the atoms and atomicbond.
Therefore, we can generally determine the different behaviors ofmaterials. The structure of materials isclassified into three types based on size:1 – atomic structure2 – microstructure3 – macrostructure??6 2.1 Atomic structure The discovery of the inner structure of the atom is one of the mostimportant scientific discoveries in this century. All atoms are made up ofthree subatomic particles : Protons , neutron and electrons.These parts have the properties shown in Table1 :Table 1 Particle Charge Mass (g) Mass (amu) Proton +1 1.6727 x 10-24 g 1.007316 Neutron 0 1.6750 x 10-24 g 1.
008701 Electron -1 9.110 x 10-28 g 0.000549 In Table1 the unit was used for atomic mass is (amu).It is moreappropriate than gram for describing masses of atoms . ??6 2.2 Microstructure Microstructuredefined as the surface structure of materials such as thin foils which can bedetected after zooming 25 times at a microscopic level.
The microstructure of the material can affect the mechanical andphysical properties such as strength , ductility , hardness and corrosionresistance. ??8 2.3 Macrostructure Macrostructure defined as The overall structure of the material andcan be seen by the naked eye.
Materials behaves differently based on mass anddensity that behavior can be determined based on the atomic bonding , when weexamine a material in solid state at amicroscopic level we can notes visually the higher number of atoms incomparison with other material with low density in liquid state . based on thatobservation we can tell the differences in nature between solid and liquid.Furthermore, at macro level liquid behaves differently than solid , for examplewhen you pour water out of a cup you can see the continuous flow of water. ??9