BaileyWilsonDr.SatoHIST4335December8, 2017 Nuclear Anxiety”Nuclear War is such an emotional subjectthat many people see the weapons themselves as the common enemy of humanity”-Herman Kahn. Nuclear Warfare wasdiscovered in the 1940s by physicists that were studying the atom. When it wasdiscovered no one knew the effects that it would have on the world for years tocome. One of the most devastating effects from the atomic bomb occurred whenthe United States dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and claimedthousands of lives.
If Japan and the United states knew how to communicate anduse the method of peace to solve problems, instead of trying to get even, thenthe thousands of lives that were taken could have been saved. Nuclear weaponsshould have never been used against Japan during World War II, Japan waswilling to surrender, and if they would have been able to effectivelycommunicate this to the Americans then lives could have been saved and fear andanxiety could have been prevented. Ironically, even the various scientists thatworked on the project that created the bomb agreed that Hiroshima and Nagasakishould have never been bombed. Since the beginning of scientists attempts atstudying nuclear war options people around the world have been scared of whatwill be due to the fact that it is the fear of the unknown.
AlbertEinstein was a German Physicist that was born and lived in Germany during thetime that Hitler came to power. Albert Einstein and his team members wrote aletter in the summer of 1939 to the United States that warned them that Hitlerhad physicists in Germany researching and attempting to develop nuclearweapons.. Einstein and his team wrote the letters because they were fearfulthat once Germany was finished with their research and developed their bombsthat they would use them on the United States.
After receiving the letter fromthe scientists the United States only interest was to create a weapon sopowerful that it could wipe off part of the world. This interest led the UnitedStates to develop a top secret plan that would essentially develop the atomicbomb, this plan was the Manhattan Project. This project was the United Statesfirst search for atomic weapons. It took place during the late 1930s and early1940s and the purpose of the project was to create a bomb through the divisionof atoms. The Manhattan Project ended up being a success that in the endcreated one of the most powerful and destructive bombs ever made which is theatomic bomb. With the creation of this and destructive bomb the President HarryTruman was faced with weighing all the factors that were involved in decidingto drop the bomb or not. The first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico in Julyof 1945. Since the United States wanted to put an end to the war with Japan andwith creation of this new deadly bomb, the United States decided bomb Japanmaking it one of the most deadly bombings in US history.
After the decision wasmade to bomb Japan with President Truman’s approval in August of 1945 the firstatomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima. This bomb killed thousands in Hiroshimaand the surrounding areas as well as caused mass destruction to the land. Theblast killed and injured thousands of civilians as well as blasted four squaremiles alone of land. It is said that the President’s rationale for dropping thebomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was thought it would save thousands of Americanslives, however after the bomb was dropped the Japanese called for a truce andsurrender as well as withdrew from the war. Although mass disaster came fromthe dropping of the bomb some good came from it.
The good that came from it wasthat it served as a reminder to people around the world that the atom bomb is aweapon capable of mass destruction. The atomic bomb affected every one simplybecause of the power it possessed. Everyone around the world was affectedemotionally as well as physically by the atomic bomb.
Due to the after effectsthat come from the bomb a lot of people have or have even been injured, whichis why the atom bomb brings so much fear into peoples lives because theyconstantly worry and wonder what would happen to their city if an atomic bombwere dropped on them. With the attempt at advancement with the nuclear bombthis lead the US into the cold war. All throughout the Cold War the UnitedStates and Russia were continuously thinking of bombing each other the onlything that stopped was the reminder of Hiroshima and Nagasaki showing howpowerful the bomb was. TheCold War was a tense and stressful time for many Americans, one of the reasonsfor this was because millions of lives could have been lost had the cold war occurred.The Cold War began at the end of World War II even though the United States andRussia were allies against Germany.
Since the common enemy had been defeated inWorld War two, this gave the two power houses the opportunity to focus on eachother. The reason that there was tension between the two countries was becauseAmerica is a democracy and the Soviet Union is a communist nation which meansthe two countries have opposing views. Their opposing views caused so muchtension between the two countries that they could not handle the thought ofpeacefully existing. Due to mounting tension Russia decided to align itselfwith Cuba and devise a plan to get rid of the Americans.
America and Cuba havealways had a bad relationship due to opposing views due to the opposing viewsCastro made the decision to align himself with Russia. After aligning withRussia Cuba then made the decision to use their location against America. In1962 when John F. Kennedy was the President of the United States he decoded amessage that the Soviet Union was working on building secret missile bases offthe coast of Florida in Cuba. Kennedy contemplated long and hard whether a planof attack should be devised or not, but ultimately decided on attempting tosettle the issue peacefully. Kennedy came to the decision that he would forcethe Russian Premier Khrushchev to remove all the missile bases that they builtin Cuba.
In order to execute his plan a naval blockade of Cuba was ordered sothat Russian ships could no longer bring missiles and materials into theisland. Due to the naval blockade that was ordered Premier Khrushchev orderedthat if Cuba was invaded by US forces then in response the Soviet fieldcommanders should launch their nuclear weapons. In the end, the situation workedout peacefully the way the President Kennedy wanted. The two sides agreed on atreaty that stated the US would remove any missiles that they had and Turkeyand they had to promise that they would not invade Cuba, and the Soviet Unionhad to remove all nuclear contents from Cuba. It has been widely said that theCuban Missile Crisis was the closest that the world came to nuclear war. Thecrisis lasted between the two countries in October for thirteen days.
Thosethirteen days were some of the most fearful days that Americans everexperienced. The Crisis occurred because the Soviets had a fear of losing thenuclear arms race to the Americans, and the Cubans had a fear of the UnitedStates invading them. Itis said that the Cold War would have never occurred if the two countries wouldnot have searched further into nuclear exploration, in the hopes of becomingthe first country with nuclear weapons. One other way the two wars are similar isthat the two countries that searched for the weapons of mass destruction wereextremists countries who hated that the US could invade whenever they wantedto. September 11 was the beginning of the Iraq war. On this date the WorldTrade Centers were attacked by terrorists. Finally three years after the attackon the World Trade Centers the US declared war on Iraq.
Fear struck out overmany Americans after the war on Iraq was declared. The reason for this fear wasbecause people felt that a nuclear attack could happen as a result of the war. Theway many people handled their was by spending most of their time at home withtheir loved ones in order to be prepared in the event of an attack. This fearhad not only an effect on emotions but flights as well.
Most Americans at thistime did not want to fly because they were afraid that the plane could becrashed and hijacked or not. There was only one upside to the fear that wasbrought on by this attack was, that it brought Americans closer together, andmade more people want to attend church. Nowthat we have discussed nuclear events that have occurred in history, letsdiscuss what type emotions or behaviors resulted from these weapons of massdestruction. A few different types of nuclear fear as well as a few events thatdisplay nuclear fear will be discussed throughout that rest of the paper.Japanese nuclear accounts as well as Japanese culture will be discussed mainlyin terms of fear, but some American accounts and culture will be included aswell. To start let’s begin by discussing whatnuclear fear is and how it came about.
Nuclear fear is also known asNucleomituphobia and it all started during the Cold War because Americans wereso scared of these weapons of mass destruction that they would not even leavetheir house, because they were afraid that a nuclear attack could occur at anytime. Not everyone was affected by Nucleomituphobia, but those who wereaffected by it stood out in a crowd. Those who possed the fear usually tried tostay away from heavily populated areas because they wanted to make sure to notdraw attention to themselves if they are in public areas. This fear isconsidered a disease that one can only get from the research of nucleardevelopment.
If there was no research of nuclear warfare then Nucleomituphobiawould go away because people would not have to worry if they were going to dietoday or not because potentially a terrorist could attack their city. Anotherevent that occurred in response to the creation of nuclear warfare was thecreation of Gojira. This was a character in a movie that was created withhidden propaganda in it warning citizens about nuclear testing as well asnuclear weapons. The movie was created in 1954 and it was about “a giant lizardwith festering skin, incandescent laser powers, and radioactive breath attackson Japanese citizens” (Sayaka 1). Gojira resulted from nuclear testing gonewrong. Throughout the movie a character known as Dr.
Yamane dropped many hintstrying to influence that yes the oxygen bomb did in fact kill the only Gojira,however if we continue nuclear testing another Gojira could come about. Ithas been found that nuclear weapons are the only weapons that have the largest causalityproducing rate and are the most dangerous to the environment. In today’s worldthere are various scientists, and engineers have access to information, theability to get physical materials they need, a lot better understanding ofscientific information, and organizations that are devoted to building weaponssystems, however nuclear weapons are still the most powerful. The bombs are sopowerful that half-life of one of the products given off by the bomb isplutonium 239 which lasts over 20,000 years. Due to the length of life thatplutonium has many people who have been exposed to it usually have seriouslyhealth problems that could be anywhere from different types of cancer toserious birth defects. The lasting effects that result from a nuclear bomb lastfor years to come making it an extremely difficult event to recover from. Atthis point in time there is no solution to handle the aftermath that occursfrom a nucear bomb that causes humans lives to be affected medically as well aseconomically.
Ever case that has involved some type of nuclear explosion showsthat the people who respond to and cleanup the explosion get affected by theradiation and usually die. Another fear that results during nuclear war is thecatastrophic costs that result in response to the weapons. Every attempt toclean up after each incident costs the government billions every year and evenstill most of the areas that were affected were still contaminated after theclean up. It costs the state of Washington alone over 2 billion dollars a yearto clean up after controlled explosions at the Hanford Nuclear Power Plant. Itsalready cost them over 2 billion a year and they have only half way completedthe clean up.
This is an example of a controlled explosion and it cost thatmuch to clean it can you imagine the costs to clean an area that was just blownup by a bomb. The surroumounting costs to clean explosions as well as thedeaths and defects that result from the by products have been clearlyunderstood by the public and now frequently stir up political disputes. Since nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction themain priority of the United States is to keep these weapons from falling intoto the hands of unstable, radical countries that will attack the United Statesbecause the weapons are so dangerous that they pose a great risk to the country.Only 9 countries are known to have nuclear weapons.
These countries are for themost part in the middle east as well as Iran has the possibility of becomingthe 10th country with nuclear weapons. The US has a large amount offear with the Middle Eastern countries having these weapons because they arethe most unstable countries. The reason they are unstable is because some ofthe countries that possess these weapons are weak and way too secure to sustaintheir weapons, which puts the world at risk for the weapons falling into thewrong hands. Various organizations and leaders from around the world are boundto prevent a dangerous situation like the weapons falling into the wrong handsfrom happening.
thedrive and want for some governments to attempt to explore for nuclear power hasbeen economically draining on the countries and placed many of some countriespeople into poverty. In order to explore the weapons you have to do research,you have to develop the bombs, you have to sustain the bombs, and you have tohave security on the bombs so they do not fall into the wrong hands. In orderto do all those things you have to have a lot of money because nuclear weaponsare expensive and the only way for the government to pay for them is by taxingtheir citizens. The Soviet Union collapsed due to two things, the first was Chernobyl,and the second was the arms race with the US. Chernobyl economically impactedthe Soviets negatively, it costs the Soviets 22% of their yearly budget. Both theevents that caused the Soviet Union to collapse were brought upon by the ColdWar.
Had the Cold War not occurred then neither would any of the events thathappened. The collapse of the Soviet Union was due to a combination of twothings: the Chernobyl nuclear meltdown and the arms race with America. Theeconomic impacts of Chernobyl alone was costing the Soviet Union almost 22% oftheir annual federal budget.
These events all stemmed from the Cold War, and ifit had not been for that, there could have been a possibility that none of thiswould have ever happened.