CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.
1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The NationalBlueprint mentioned English Literature component where the component is giventhe role of encouraging English proficiency of school students(Kaur & Mahmor, 2014) Englishliterature in Malaysian secondary school plays two roles which are i)literature as an elective and ii) literature as a tool to teach English. Directreference to literature and improving students’ English proficiency throughliterature component is done at the secondary level of education(Kaur & Mahmor, 2014) Graphic novel’Black Beauty’ has been introduced to the lower secondary school students in2011 as one of the literature texts used in literature class at school. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Students viewliterature as a boring subject due to the teachers that prefer the traditionalmethod of teaching literature(Bee, Abdullah, & Mohd, 2017) Students tend toignore the aspects of meaning making in learning and only focused mainly on thepublic referents of meaning(Bee et al.
, 2017) As cited by (Edina anak Lanying, 2005), according toPandian(2000) it is essential for the students to learn not only to read butalso embedded the reading habits for enjoyment and lifelong learning. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objectives of thisstudy are as follows:1) To study students’ attitude towards graphic novel.2) To find out the understanding of the students on thetext given. 3) To find out the students’ preferences of the types literaturetext.1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research questionsfor this study would be:1) What are the students’ attitudes towards graphicnovel?2) What are the students’ understandings on the giventext?3) What are the types of literature text that studentsprefer?1.
6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY TEACHERSSTUDENTS1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY LIMITATIONSThe sample sizeis small which only consist of 60 secondary school students. Therefore, theresult cannot be generalized to the whole population of secondary schoolstudents in Malaysia.DELIMITATIONThe samples onlyconsist of form 2 students from only one school in Selangor.
Therefore, theresult cannot be generalized to all form 2 students and all school in Selangor.1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS LITERATURE According toOxford Dictionary literature is written work especially those considered assuperior art or lasting merit. GRAPHIC NOVEL According to (Park, 2016), graphic novelis an animated novel that includes a range of genres and according to Baird andJackson(2007) are “told with words and pictures that augment the story” ascited by(Park, 2016). LEARNING ANDUNDERSTANDING CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PREVIOUSSTUDIES 2.2 THEORITICALFRAMEWORK There are three theoreticalframeworks that can be connected and used for this study which will be explainedfurther in this topic. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory The first theory will be based on HowardGardner’s multiple intelligences theory.
According to Gardner & Hatch(1989)intelligence can be defined as ” the capacity to solve problems or to fashionproducts that are valued in one or more cultural settings” as cited by (Ibnian & Hadban, 2013). There are ofnine intelligences that Gardner had formulated through his past researches thathe has conducted with other researchers which include biological and as well ascultural research(Ibnian & Hadban, 2013). There are sevenintelligences listed initially which are: linguistic, bodily kinesthetic, spatial,logical-mathematical, interpersonal and interpersonal; later on he added the eighthand ninth intelligence which are naturalist intelligence and existential intelligencerespectively. The best type of intelligence from the nine intelligences stated abovethat can be linked to this study is the spatial intelligence. Spatialintelligence is the type of intelligence which is one’s ability to change or manipulateand create mental images in order to solve problems(Ibnian & Hadban, 2013). Using graphicnovel in the classroom can motivate students with spatial intelligence to readand engage with the literature lesson as it involves images and visuals ratherthan words-only text. Graphic novels also serve as the best type of texts to beused for light reading among young learners as comics and graphic novels consistimages accompanied with words hence it will enhance their ability to understandand comprehend the text (Syafiq, 2013). Krashen’s Free Voluntary Reading The next theoretical framework that this researchcan relate with is free voluntary reading which is proposed by Krashen(2003).
Free voluntaryreading is According to Krashen(2003) the most powerful tool in languageeducation may be the free voluntary reading. Free voluntary reading is also aneffective way of improving literacy and good for language development(Krashen, 2003). In the studiesthat he did, the results shows that free reading is enjoyable for the readersto engage in the situation or condition which involves reading. This issupported by (Syafiq, 2013), a researcher ofanother study that the most suitable way for the readers to improve the readinghabit is by developing Free Voluntary Reading motivation and initiative. The Schema Theory CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.
1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher will addresson the research methods, reliability and validity, methods of data collectionand methods of data analysis.3.2 RESEARCH METHODS The research design employed by the research is experimental designas according to Chua(2016) it is the best design to use for conducting acomparative research among group. The respondents will be randomly assignedinto two groups which are experimental group and control group with 30respondents in a group. The researcher will manipulates the variable for theexperimental group, which is the presence of graphic novel and later on willobserve the change of the other variable. The other group only will be given awritten text rather than a visualize text. Each group will be given with apre-test and a post- test to test their understanding of the text.
The samples of this research will be taken from a secondary schoolin Selangor which are Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Meru in Selangor. 60 studentsfrom each school are taken as the research respondents The number ofrespondents selected for the research which is quite many, the researcher thinksthe number selected is suitable for this research because according to Chua(2016),the research can be conducted on large number of respondents at the same time .Theage range of the respondents is 14 years old which are the Form two students ofSekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Meru in which are the most suitable type ofrespondents as they will learn English using graphic novels through theirliterature class. The respondents may also consist of mixture of male andfemale students. As for the instrument used in this research, the researcher used a pre-test,a post- test and a set of questionnaires to collect her data. The instrument thatwill be used in this research is suitable as stated by Chua(2016) as it can beused to measure the effectiveness of using graphic novel to promote students’learning and understanding of literature.
The purposes of using thequestionnaire as the instrument for the research are to collect the data on thedifferences of students in the experimental group and the control group intheir understanding of the given text and their preferences on the type ofliterature text. A pilot test will be conducted before the tests or thequestionnaires can be distributed and administered to the respondents as Chua(2016)has stated that this step is needed to guarantee the reliability and validityof the instrument. 3.3 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY According to Chua(2016), validity alsorefers to the capability of a measurement or a research instrument to measurethe true value of a concept in a hypothesis. Chua(2016) also added that validitycan be said as high if the instrument administered can accurately measure the ideaor concept mentioned in the hypothesis. Therefore, validity of this researchmeans that the definition of the concepts introduced or stated in this researchand the phases of operational must be constant with each other.
Reliability can be defined as thecapability of the study to obtain the same value when measurement are repeated Chua(2016)In this research, when the tests given to the respondents produce the sameresults of the first and second tests that are conducted within a certain timeperiod then tests used for this research can be said as to have highreliability. 3.4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Before starting the process of datacollection, the researcher will ask for the permission to carry out thisresearch from the parties involved. For this research, the researcher willinform and obtain permission from the school administration and also from thedistrict ministry of education to avoid any problems that can arise in thefuture in regards of this research. Next, the researcher will identifythe samples needed in term of its number and characteristics of the respondentsthat the researcher requires for this study. The researcher will select thesamples that she needs using the sampling.
After the determining the samples,the researcher will administer the test and the questionnaire that theresearcher has prepared beforehand to the samples. The researcher willadminister the tests and questionnaires by herself. However, if there are any changesin administering the instruments, the researcher will inform the person thatwill help her in administering the tests and questionnaires about the research process. The samples will be informed and briefed about the research and theprocess of collecting the data. The researcher will also clarify to the samplesthat the result of the tests and questionnaires will not affect theirexamination results in any way. The data collected will also only be used forthis research. The data from the tests and questionnaires will be collected.
Then,the data will be recorded and analysed using the Statistical Package for SocialScience (SPSS) Software. 3.5 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS With regards to data analysis methods, the researcher will collectback the distributed tests and questionnaires from the respondents on the spot.The data from the answered instruments will be collected and analysed using theStatistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Software.
By using descriptive statistic and comparing means, the datacollected will be computed and analysed. Then, to identify the means, standarddeviation, minimum and maximum point, the data were analysed by the researcher.The researcher will construct a table and the raw data collected will be keyedin. The analysed data will then tabulated and characterized as the findings.
The data analysis procedures will be done by the researcher in steps;hence the data will be organized, so that it will be easy for the researcher torefer back to the data collected when needed.