CHAPTER 1Introduction Background of the StudyDengueinfection is an outstanding disease. It is caused by fourkinds of infections for the most part DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3,and DENV-4 originate from the Flaviviridae family. The infections are spreadthrough the chomp of tainted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes thatbolster for the duration of the day.
For the mostpart, these mosquitoes can be found in places withdormant water, including water tanks, tires, holders, andpuddles. A few impacts of this contamination are influenza-like ailment anddeadly sickness which is extreme dengue. Asof late, the instances of dengue have risen too much aroundthe globe. An expected 390 million dengue cases are accountedfor every year, 96 million indicated plainly.
Another report, ofrecurrence of dengue, figured 3.8 billion individuals, in 128 nations are inperil as a result of dengue infections. The occurrence of dengue cases related,raised from 2.
2 million to 3.2 million out of 2010 to 2015 separately. Despitethe fact that the worldwide burdens of disease istemperamental, the establishment ofexercises to account at first shows the due growth in thequantity of cases recorded in going before years. More than 100 nationsin the WHO areas of Africa, America, the Eastern Mediterranean,South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific districts are confrontingthis issue. Already the quantity of recorded cases has continued emerging. Justabout 2.3 million instances of dengue were recorded just in America in 2015.
10300 cases were perceived as serious dengue coming about 1180 deaths (Bhatt S,2015). Broadly,the Philippines has announced dengue cases. Locales where most influenced bydengue are Central Visayas, Central Luzon, Calabarzon, Metro Manilaand Soccsksargen. Dengue happens broadly and done during thetime in the Philippines particularly in urbanand pre-urban spots. Transmission of the disease occurs allthrough the stormy season, May downto November (International Association for Medical Assistance toexplorers, 2016). 43, 780 cases, 250 deaths and 85 losses were accounted forand recorded by the Department of Health. For the most part, there were 6,281dengue cases in Central Visayas, 5,146 in Central Luzon, 5,008 in Calabarzon, 5,565in Metro Manila, and 4,863 in Soccsksargen. There likewise territoriesinfluenced by dengue infection including Cebu (12%), South Cotabato (6.
4%), andPampanga (4.7%) (The Manila Times). Locally,there is additionally various dengue cases. As indicated by theyearly horribleness record of Maco Main Health Center inSeptember 2017, there are 4 individuals were influencedby dengue in Maco. Dengue infection is a notable disease.
Research Questions1.) Iscalamansi peels efficient in killing larvae?2.) Whatare the components of calamansi peels that can kill larvae?3.) Howeffective are calamansi peels in keeping a place safe from mosquitoes?4.) What would be the duration of theeffectiveness of calamansi peels in killing larvae?5.) Isour study more beneficial than commercial larvicide? Null HypothesisThere is no significant effect in killing larvae usingcalamansi peels. Review Related LiteratureCalamansiis a little, round citrus organic product that is basic in the Philippines.Calamansi, otherwise called Citrofortunella microcarpa originate from Rutaceaefamily and a prominent citrofortunella in light of the fact that it is anintergenetic cross breed between the attribute of a citrus and Kumquat.
Allover the world, there are well-known names for calamansi including calamonding,calamondin orange, brilliant lime, and Philippine lime. It is extensivelyrefined in numerous spots the world over including Philippines, Malaysia,Indonesia, and China. The accessibility of this natural product can manage fromstart to the finish of the year in the Philippines. A few people utilized itfor embellishment or as a fancy tree than to look it as a natural productbearing tree.
The span of the Calamansi organic product goes to 23-35 mm indistance across. The shade of the mash of a mature Calamansi and its peel is orange(http://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved:January 6, 2018). Calamansi’slime juice has numerous advantages, it has a pectin content that can treat hackand cool and can bring down blood cholesterol, additionally it is bottomless in Vitamin C that cancounteract tooth rot and agony, dental caries, discharging of blood in the gumsand debilitating of bones (http://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved:January 6, 2018) Calamansicitrus has discovered a few therapeutic employment.
At the point when rubbed oncreepy crawly nibbles, the juice will assuage the tingling and diminish thebothering. It can likewise be utilized as a characteristic skin break out drugor taken orally as hack prescription (regularly blended with green tea) and isa characteristic calming. For issues with obstruction, the juice is warmed andweakened with water. It blanches spots and clears up skin inflammation vulgarisand pruritus vulvae.
In Malaysia, it is utilized as a remedy for harm, and apoultice of pandanus leaves blended with salt and the juice of citrusmicrocarpa, can be utilized to treat abscesses. It is joined with pepper tohelp oust mucus. Its root is utilized as a part of the Philippines at labor. (https://vanscott.wordpress.
comRetrieved January 6, 2018)Calamansi(Citrofortunella microcarpa) organic products or privately known as”Kalamansi” is generally developed in Philippines and is utilized asa fixing nearly in each renowned dish made in the Philippines. Just the mashwere pressed and is required, the peels are simply discarded. It has a placewith the family Rutaceae. It is an intergenetic half and half between anindividual from Citrus reticulata or “tangerine” and “kumquat”or Fortunella japonica.
Thecalamansi tree has a stature of 3 to 5 meters high, and is erect, slim, thicklyextended near the ground, marginally sharp, and bears expansive oval, dim greenleaves at first glance, yellowish underneath, sweetly fragrant white bloomswith 5 elliptic-oval petals, and organic products that are round that is about 4.5cm wide with thin, sweet-smelling peel with unmistakable pores. The mash have 6to 10 fragments that is hued yellow to orange, extremely delicious, seedless orwith 1 to 5 little ovoid green seeds inside. It has been known not just for itsreviving juices and flavors, yet in addition for its therapeutic employments.Calamansi organic product might be pulverized and use to cleanser in hair ormight be connected into scalp subsequent to shampooing for hair development andhelp of tingling.
“Calamondin” juice may be additionally connectedand rubbed on mosquito chomps to dispose of bothering and tingling. Itadditionally blanches spots and clear up skin inflammation vulgaris ifconnected routinely. Juice is additionally taken orally as a hack cure and isin some cases joined with pepper, to oust mucus. It can likewise be weakenedand smashed warm as a fecal conditioner.
Refined oil of the leaves can go aboutas a carminative for having an unpredictable oil substance of 0.90% to 1.06%.Researchfound that the leaves of the evergreen bush of kumquat (Fortunella japonica)which is regular in China, what’s more, has a place with a similar familyRutaceae with Calamondin (Citrofortunella microcarpa) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic,and antioxidative impacts.
Calamansi is luxuriously developed in the Philippines,its normal yearly per capita utilization is as waste. Citrus organic products,for example, Calamansi, is used predominantly for its mash and squeeze, therest of the organic product or the squeezed mash, covering of mash fragment, seeds,and the skin are viewed as biggest wellspring of citrus squander, figuring outhow to use it will likewise help the condition. Since Calamansi has a placewith citrus family it would now be able to be used as wellspring of home grownpharmaceutical. On the off chance that its potential use as natural solution isinvestigated it can likewise help in the diminishment of ecologicalcontamination (International Journal of Food Engineering, 2017).Additionally,Calamansi peel has four surely understood hydroxycinnamic acids includingcaffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids that were considered in themethanolic removes. It held the biggest number of aggregate phenolic acids.
Phenolic corrosive is a sort of synthetic compound as beta-carotene called apolyphenol. Polyphenols have different components like flavonoids and stilbenes(http://www.verywell.
com Retrieved: January 6, 2018). Thephenolic mixes 2,6-diiodophenol (2a) and 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol (2c) havediverse lethality and larvicidal conduct. The compound 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol(2c) demonstrated the most astounding lethality for hatchlings of Ae.
aegyptiand A. salina, displaying higher poisonous quality than 2,6-diiodophenol (https://file.scirp.org Retrieved:January 6, 2018).Mosquitoesfill in as a vector for different tropical and subtropical sicknesses whichmake ruinous impacts human. They don’t just transmit parasites and pathogensyet they additionally wellspring of unfavorably susceptible response thatincorporates nearby skin and foundational affectability.
The most well-knownailments related with mosquitoes are dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow feverand the most noticeably bad, dengue hemorrhagic fever where Aedes aegypti isone of the mosquito animal types in charge of the transmission of thesevector-borne sicknesses.WorldHealth Organization (WHO) expressed that around 2/5 of the worldwide humanpopulace are at present debilitate of dengue and the ideal approach to controlthe transmission of dengue infection is battling the mosquitoes that reason thesickness. Dengue is a standout amongst the most critical viral maladiestransmitted by Aedes aegypti on the grounds that it torments people worldwidewhose side effects running from mellow fever to an extreme and conceivablyhazardous hemorrhagic illness.
Aedes aegypti is of incomparable concern in viewof its wide conveyance and close relationship with people. Aedes aegypti isavailable in intensely dirtied zones like Asia, America, and some PacificIslands and pervaded around 2/3 of the total populace. The detailed denguecases in the Philippines from January to June 2012 have just achieved 32,193across the nation, 3.
8% higher for a similar period a year ago. Becauseof the pathogenic illnesses and genuine damages caused by mosquitoes,controlling them has been the essential subject of a few new sorts of researchin the course of recent years. The system in controlling mosquitoes relies uponthe larval stages (egg, hatchlings, pupae, and grown-up) on target.
Mosquitocontrol incorporates focusing on the grown-up mosquito through showeringsubstance bug sprays or by murdering the mosquito hatchlings before theydevelop into grown-ups by means of utilizing engineered larvicides or organicconcentrates as an elective larvicide. Bethat as it may, the utilization of engineered larvicides forces dangers tohuman wellbeing as well as to the biological system since when they areconnected into the earth; they may remain on for quite a while or even staythere without end. Manufactured larvicides additionally disturb normal naturalcontrol frameworks that occasionally brings about a boundless improvement ofprotection (International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2016).Mosquitohatchlings, normally called “wigglers,” live in water from 4 to 14days contingent upon water temperature. Hatchlingsmust rise to the top at visit interims to acquire oxygen through a breathingtube called a siphon. They are always bolstering since development requires atremendous measure of vitality and nourishment. They hang with their heads downand the brushes by their mouths separating anything sufficiently little to beeaten toward their mouths to sustain the developing hatchlings.
They feast upongreen growth, tiny fish, parasites and microscopic organisms and differentmicroorganisms. They breath at the water surface with the breathing tube upbreaking the water surface strain. One mosquito animal categories hatchlingencourages on hatchlings of different mosquitoes: Toxorhynchites, the biggestmosquito known, are predators of other mosquito hatchlings sharing theirterritory. Their hatchlings are significantly bigger than other mosquitohatchlings. Amiddevelopment, the hatchling (sheds its skin) four times. The phases betweensheds are called instars. At the fourth instar, the standard hatchling achievesa length of just about 1/2 inch and toward the finish of this instar stopsencouraging. At the point when the fourth instar hatchling sheds, it turns intoa pupa.
(http://www.wumcd.org/mosquito/larvae.html).Hardlyany creatures on Earth bring out the animosity thatmosquitoes do.
Their bothersome, disturbing nibbles and aboutuniversal nearness can demolish a terrace grill or a climb inthe forested areas. They have anuncanny capacity to detect our dangerousaims, taking off and vanishing millisecondsbefore a lethal swat. Also, in our rooms, thepersevering, whiny murmur of their humming wings canwake the soundest of sleepers. (National Geographic, 2013).Past the irritation factor,mosquitoes are transporters, or vectors, for some ofhumankind’s most savage sicknesses, and theyare open for number one in the battle againstworldwide irresistible infection. Mosquito-borne illnesses causea huge number of passing worldwide consistently witha lopsided impact on kids and the elderly in creatingnations. There are more than 3,000 types of mosquitoes,yet the individuals from three bear essential dutyregarding the spread of human ailments. Anopheles mosquitoesare the main species known to convey intestinal sickness.
They additionally transmit filariasis(likewise called elephantiasis) and encephalitis. Culex mosquitoesconvey encephalitis, filariasis, and the West Nile infection. What’smore, Aedes mosquitoes, of which the ravenous Asian tiger is apart, convey yellow fever, dengue, andencephalitis. Mosquitoes transmit malady in an assortmentof ways. On account of jungle fever,parasites join themselves to the gut of a female mosquito andenter a host as she nourishes. In different cases, for example,yellow fever and dengue, an infection enters the mosquito as itbolsters on a contaminated human and is transmitted bymeans of the mosquito’s salivation to a resulting casualty.Mosquitoesutilize breathed out carbon dioxide, personal stenchesand temperature, and development to home in on theircasualties. Just female mosquitoes have the mouthparts important for sucking blood.
Whilegnawing with their proboscis, they wound two tubes into theskin: oneto infuse a chemical that represses blood coagulating; the otherto suck blood into their bodies. They utilize the blood not for theirown food but rather as a wellspring of protein for theireggs. For nourishment, the two guys and females eat nectar and otherplant sugars. The mainsilver coating to that billow of mosquitoes in yourgarden is that they are a dependable wellspringof sustenance for a huge numberof creatures, including flying creatures,bats, dragonflies, and frogs. What’s more, peopleare really not the primary decision for mostmosquitoes searching for a feast. They for the mostpart favor steeds, steers, and winged creatures. Allmosquitoes require water to breed, soannihilation and populace control endeavors as arule include evacuation or treatment of standing water sources.
Bug spray splashing to murder grown-up mosquitoes isadditionally far reaching. Be that as it may, worldwideendeavors to stop the spread of mosquitoes are having littleimpact, and numerous researchers think an Earth-widetemperature boost will probably build their number and range. Significance of the Study The aftereffect of the investigationexpects to help the general public in keeping their well-being against mosquitocausing dengue infection and to reduce the dengue cases in the worldwide,national and nearby scales. Besides, the investigation could be of significanceto the accompanying: Medical Practitioners. Theconsequence of the investigation will give them data and extra information onthe medical advantages of Calamansi peels. Family and Community. Theconsequence of the examination will influence the individuals from the familyand individuals in the group especially the individuals who are influenced bythe dengue fever and will show them how to keep the expansion of hatchling andmosquito. Future Researchers.
The examinationwill give them foundation data about phenolic acids that can be found incalamansi peels. Definition of Terms The following terms are hereindefined both conceptually and operationally:Hydroxycinnamic Acid. (Forexample, ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) Are a gathering ofmixes exceedingly inexhaustible in sustenance that may represent around 33% ofthe phenolic mixes in our eating routine. In this study, hydroxycinnamic acidis one of the fighting agents that can support phenolic acid in preventing thegrowth of larvae.Phenolic acid.This is also called as phenolcarboxylic acid, kind of sweet-smelling corrosivecompound. Incorporated into that class are substances containing a phenolicring and a natural carboxylic corrosive capacity (C6-C1 skeleton). In thisstudy, phenolic acid is the component of Calamansi peel that can kill mosquitolarvae.
Larvicide. Thisis an insecticide that isspecifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect and their mostcommon use is against mosquitoes. It maybe contact poisons, stomach poisons, growth regulators, or (increasingly)biological control agents. In this study, larvicide will be used for theexperiment as Calamansi peel powder to kill mosquito larvae. Scope and Limitations:· This study is primarily focuses on killinglarvae.
· The product should be applied in thefollowing areas: Stagnant water, old tires, puddles, containers.· The Calamansi peel powder is exclusive inkilling larvae and prohibited to be intake.· Also, our study focus on the effectiveness ofthe Calamansi peels. CHAPTER 2Materialsand Methods Inthis chapter, you will know the materials to be used and procedures how to makea larvicide using Calamansi peels into powder. Statistical treatment will also bepresented.Research Design Theresearchers will use Completely Randomized Pre-Test and Post-Test ExperimentalResearch Design. The study will use 50 mosquito larvae which where distributedinto two treatments.
The two treatments will be divided into two groups for thetesting of control group (commercial larvicide) and experimental group(Calamansi peel powder) and will be administered to the different grouprespectively.Experimental Design Thefollowing groups of mosquito larvae were used for the experiment: Group 1, 25mosquito larvae were administered with 1 teaspoon commercial larvicide (controlgroup), Group 2, 25 mosquito larvae were administered with 1 teaspoon Calamansipeel powder.Insect 50mosquito larvae from San Roque, Maco, Compostela Valley were used in the study. Procedures:Collection of Plant Material ½kilogram of Calamansi fruits were bought at Maco Public Market and prepared forthe peeling.
Preparation of Plant Material Theresearchers washed the ½ kg. Calamansi fruit and peeled it using a knife andput it in a bowl. Grinding of the Peeled Calamansi Fruit Afterpeeling, they dehydrated it in the oven within 170 degree in 12 hours. Then,they grinded it using a food processor and put it in the bottle.