CHAPTER million instances of dengue were recorded just



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Background of the Study

infection is an outstanding disease. It is caused by four
kinds of infections for the most part DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3,
and DENV-4 originate from the Flaviviridae family. The infections are spread
through the chomp of tainted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that
bolster for the duration of the day. For the most
part, these mosquitoes can be found in places with
dormant water, including water tanks, tires, holders, and
puddles. A few impacts of this contamination are influenza-like ailment and
deadly sickness which is extreme dengue.

of late, the instances of dengue have risen too much around
the globe. An expected 390 million dengue cases are accounted
for every year, 96 million indicated plainly. Another report, of
recurrence of dengue, figured 3.8 billion individuals, in 128 nations are in
peril as a result of dengue infections. The occurrence of dengue cases related,
raised from 2.2 million to 3.2 million out of 2010 to 2015 separately. Despite
the fact that the worldwide burdens of disease is
temperamental, the establishment of
exercises to account at first shows the due growth in the
quantity of cases recorded in going before years. More than 100 nations
in the WHO areas of Africa, America, the Eastern Mediterranean,
South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific districts are confronting
this issue. Already the quantity of recorded cases has continued emerging. Just
about 2.3 million instances of dengue were recorded just in America in 2015. 10
300 cases were perceived as serious dengue coming about 1180 deaths (Bhatt S,

the Philippines has announced dengue cases. Locales where most influenced by
dengue are Central Visayas, Central Luzon, Calabarzon, Metro Manila
and Soccsksargen. Dengue happens broadly and done during the
time in the Philippines particularly in urban
and pre-urban spots. Transmission of the disease occurs all
through the stormy season, May down
to November (International Association for Medical Assistance to
explorers, 2016). 43, 780 cases, 250 deaths and 85 losses were accounted for
and recorded by the Department of Health. For the most part, there were 6,281
dengue cases in Central Visayas, 5,146 in Central Luzon, 5,008 in Calabarzon, 5,565
in Metro Manila, and 4,863 in Soccsksargen. There likewise territories
influenced by dengue infection including Cebu (12%), South Cotabato (6.4%), and
Pampanga (4.7%) (The Manila Times). 

there is additionally various dengue cases. As indicated by the
yearly horribleness record of Maco Main Health Center in
September 2017, there are 4 individuals were influenced
by dengue in Maco. Dengue infection is a notable disease.


Research Questions

calamansi peels efficient in killing larvae?

are the components of calamansi peels that can kill larvae?

effective are calamansi peels in keeping a place safe from mosquitoes?

 What would be the duration of the
effectiveness of calamansi peels in killing larvae?

our study more beneficial than commercial larvicide?


Null Hypothesis

There is no significant effect in killing larvae using
calamansi peels.

Review Related Literature

is a little, round citrus organic product that is basic in the Philippines.
Calamansi, otherwise called Citrofortunella microcarpa originate from Rutaceae
family and a prominent citrofortunella in light of the fact that it is an
intergenetic cross breed between the attribute of a citrus and Kumquat. All
over the world, there are well-known names for calamansi including calamonding,
calamondin orange, brilliant lime, and Philippine lime. It is extensively
refined in numerous spots the world over including Philippines, Malaysia,
Indonesia, and China. The accessibility of this natural product can manage from
start to the finish of the year in the Philippines. A few people utilized it
for embellishment or as a fancy tree than to look it as a natural product
bearing tree. The span of the Calamansi organic product goes to 23-35 mm in
distance across. The shade of the mash of a mature Calamansi and its peel is orange
( Retrieved:
January 6, 2018).


lime juice has numerous advantages, it has a pectin content that can treat hack
and cool and can bring down blood    
cholesterol, additionally it is bottomless in Vitamin C that can
counteract tooth rot and agony, dental caries, discharging of blood in the gums
and debilitating of bones ( Retrieved:
January 6, 2018)

citrus has discovered a few therapeutic employment. At the point when rubbed on
creepy crawly nibbles, the juice will assuage the tingling and diminish the
bothering. It can likewise be utilized as a characteristic skin break out drug
or taken orally as hack prescription (regularly blended with green tea) and is
a characteristic calming. For issues with obstruction, the juice is warmed and
weakened with water. It blanches spots and clears up skin inflammation vulgaris
and pruritus vulvae. In Malaysia, it is utilized as a remedy for harm, and a
poultice of pandanus leaves blended with salt and the juice of citrus
microcarpa, can be utilized to treat abscesses. It is joined with pepper to
help oust mucus. Its root is utilized as a part of the Philippines at labor. (
Retrieved January 6, 2018)

(Citrofortunella microcarpa) organic products or privately known as
“Kalamansi” is generally developed in Philippines and is utilized as
a fixing nearly in each renowned dish made in the Philippines. Just the mash
were pressed and is required, the peels are simply discarded. It has a place
with the family Rutaceae. It is an intergenetic half and half between an
individual from Citrus reticulata or “tangerine” and “kumquat”
or Fortunella japonica.

calamansi tree has a stature of 3 to 5 meters high, and is erect, slim, thickly
extended near the ground, marginally sharp, and bears expansive oval, dim green
leaves at first glance, yellowish underneath, sweetly fragrant white blooms
with 5 elliptic-oval petals, and organic products that are round that is about 4.5
cm wide with thin, sweet-smelling peel with unmistakable pores. The mash have 6
to 10 fragments that is hued yellow to orange, extremely delicious, seedless or
with 1 to 5 little ovoid green seeds inside. It has been known not just for its
reviving juices and flavors, yet in addition for its therapeutic employments.
Calamansi organic product might be pulverized and use to cleanser in hair or
might be connected into scalp subsequent to shampooing for hair development and
help of tingling. “Calamondin” juice may be additionally connected
and rubbed on mosquito chomps to dispose of bothering and tingling. It
additionally blanches spots and clear up skin inflammation vulgaris if
connected routinely. Juice is additionally taken orally as a hack cure and is
in some cases joined with pepper, to oust mucus. It can likewise be weakened
and smashed warm as a fecal conditioner. Refined oil of the leaves can go about
as a carminative for having an unpredictable oil substance of 0.90% to 1.06%.

found that the leaves of the evergreen bush of kumquat (Fortunella japonica)
which is regular in China, what’s more, has a place with a similar family
Rutaceae with Calamondin (Citrofortunella microcarpa) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic,
and antioxidative impacts.Calamansi is luxuriously developed in the Philippines,
its normal yearly per capita utilization is as waste. Citrus organic products,
for example, Calamansi, is used predominantly for its mash and squeeze, the
rest of the organic product or the squeezed mash, covering of mash fragment, seeds,
and the skin are viewed as biggest wellspring of citrus squander, figuring out
how to use it will likewise help the condition. Since Calamansi has a place
with citrus family it would now be able to be used as wellspring of home grown
pharmaceutical. On the off chance that its potential use as natural solution is
investigated it can likewise help in the diminishment of ecological
contamination (International Journal of Food Engineering, 2017).

Calamansi peel has four surely understood hydroxycinnamic acids including
caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids that were considered in the
methanolic removes. It held the biggest number of aggregate phenolic acids.
Phenolic corrosive is a sort of synthetic compound as beta-carotene called a
polyphenol. Polyphenols have different components like flavonoids and stilbenes
(  Retrieved: January 6, 2018).


phenolic mixes 2,6-diiodophenol (2a) and 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol (2c) have
diverse lethality and larvicidal conduct. The compound 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol
(2c) demonstrated the most astounding lethality for hatchlings of Ae. aegypti
and A. salina, displaying higher poisonous quality than 2,6-diiodophenol ( Retrieved:
January 6, 2018).

fill in as a vector for different tropical and subtropical sicknesses which
make ruinous impacts human. They don’t just transmit parasites and pathogens
yet they additionally wellspring of unfavorably susceptible response that
incorporates nearby skin and foundational affectability. The most well-known
ailments related with mosquitoes are dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever
and the most noticeably bad, dengue hemorrhagic fever where Aedes aegypti is
one of the mosquito animal types in charge of the transmission of these
vector-borne sicknesses.

Health Organization (WHO) expressed that around 2/5 of the worldwide human
populace are at present debilitate of dengue and the ideal approach to control
the transmission of dengue infection is battling the mosquitoes that reason the
sickness. Dengue is a standout amongst the most critical viral maladies
transmitted by Aedes aegypti on the grounds that it torments people worldwide
whose side effects running from mellow fever to an extreme and conceivably
hazardous hemorrhagic illness. Aedes aegypti is of incomparable concern in view
of its wide conveyance and close relationship with people. Aedes aegypti is
available in intensely dirtied zones like Asia, America, and some Pacific
Islands and pervaded around 2/3 of the total populace. The detailed dengue
cases in the Philippines from January to June 2012 have just achieved 32,193
across the nation, 3.8% higher for a similar period a year ago.

of the pathogenic illnesses and genuine damages caused by mosquitoes,
controlling them has been the essential subject of a few new sorts of research
in the course of recent years. The system in controlling mosquitoes relies upon
the larval stages (egg, hatchlings, pupae, and grown-up) on target. Mosquito
control incorporates focusing on the grown-up mosquito through showering
substance bug sprays or by murdering the mosquito hatchlings before they
develop into grown-ups by means of utilizing engineered larvicides or organic
concentrates as an elective larvicide.

that as it may, the utilization of engineered larvicides forces dangers to
human wellbeing as well as to the biological system since when they are
connected into the earth; they may remain on for quite a while or even stay
there without end. Manufactured larvicides additionally disturb normal natural
control frameworks that occasionally brings about a boundless improvement of
protection (International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2016).

hatchlings, normally called “wigglers,” live in water from 4 to 14
days contingent upon water temperature.

must rise to the top at visit interims to acquire oxygen through a breathing
tube called a siphon. They are always bolstering since development requires a
tremendous measure of vitality and nourishment. They hang with their heads down
and the brushes by their mouths separating anything sufficiently little to be
eaten toward their mouths to sustain the developing hatchlings. They feast upon
green growth, tiny fish, parasites and microscopic organisms and different
microorganisms. They breath at the water surface with the breathing tube up
breaking the water surface strain. One mosquito animal categories hatchling
encourages on hatchlings of different mosquitoes: Toxorhynchites, the biggest
mosquito known, are predators of other mosquito hatchlings sharing their
territory. Their hatchlings are significantly bigger than other mosquito

development, the hatchling (sheds its skin) four times. The phases between
sheds are called instars. At the fourth instar, the standard hatchling achieves
a length of just about 1/2 inch and toward the finish of this instar stops
encouraging. At the point when the fourth instar hatchling sheds, it turns into
a pupa. (

any creatures on Earth bring out the animosity that
mosquitoes do. Their bothersome, disturbing nibbles and about
universal nearness can demolish a terrace grill or a climb in
the forested areas. They have an
uncanny capacity to detect our dangerous
aims, taking off and vanishing milliseconds
before a lethal swat. Also, in our rooms, the
persevering, whiny murmur of their humming wings can
wake the soundest of sleepers. (National Geographic, 2013).

Past the irritation factor,
mosquitoes are transporters, or vectors, for some of
humankind’s most savage sicknesses, and they
are open for number one in the battle against
worldwide irresistible infection. Mosquito-borne illnesses cause
a huge number of passing worldwide consistently with
a lopsided impact on kids and the elderly in creating
nations. There are more than 3,000 types of mosquitoes,
yet the individuals from three bear essential duty
regarding the spread of human ailments.

Anopheles mosquitoes
are the main species known to convey intestinal sickness.
They additionally transmit filariasis
(likewise called elephantiasis) and encephalitis. Culex mosquitoes
convey encephalitis, filariasis, and the West Nile infection. What’s
more, Aedes mosquitoes, of which the ravenous Asian tiger is a
part, convey yellow fever, dengue, and
encephalitis. Mosquitoes transmit malady in an assortment
of ways. On account of jungle fever,
parasites join themselves to the gut of a female mosquito and
enter a host as she nourishes. In different cases, for example,
yellow fever and dengue, an infection enters the mosquito as it
bolsters on a contaminated human and is transmitted by
means of the mosquito’s salivation to a resulting casualty.

utilize breathed out carbon dioxide, personal stenches
and temperature, and development to home in on their
casualties. Just female mosquitoes have the mouth
parts important for sucking blood. While
gnawing with their proboscis, they wound two tubes into the
skin: one
to infuse a chemical that represses blood coagulating; the other
to suck blood into their bodies. They utilize the blood not for their
own food but rather as a wellspring of protein for their
eggs. For nourishment, the two guys and females eat nectar and other
plant sugars. 

The main
silver coating to that billow of mosquitoes in your
garden is that they are a dependable wellspring
of sustenance for a huge number
of creatures, including flying creatures,
bats, dragonflies, and frogs. What’s more, people
are really not the primary decision for most
mosquitoes searching for a feast. They for the most
part favor steeds, steers, and winged creatures.

mosquitoes require water to breed, so
annihilation and populace control endeavors as a
rule include evacuation or treatment of standing water sources.
Bug spray splashing to murder grown-up mosquitoes is
additionally far reaching. Be that as it may, worldwide
endeavors to stop the spread of mosquitoes are having little
impact, and numerous researchers think an Earth-wide
temperature boost will probably build their number and range.

Significance of the Study

            The aftereffect of the investigation
expects to help the general public in keeping their well-being against mosquito
causing dengue infection and to reduce the dengue cases in the worldwide,
national and nearby scales. Besides, the investigation could be of significance
to the accompanying:

Medical Practitioners. The
consequence of the investigation will give them data and extra information on
the medical advantages of Calamansi peels.

Family and Community. The
consequence of the examination will influence the individuals from the family
and individuals in the group especially the individuals who are influenced by
the dengue fever and will show them how to keep the expansion of hatchling and

            Future Researchers. The examination
will give them foundation data about phenolic acids that can be found in
calamansi peels.


Definition of Terms

            The following terms are herein
defined both conceptually and operationally:

Hydroxycinnamic Acid. (For
example, ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) Are a gathering of
mixes exceedingly inexhaustible in sustenance that may represent around 33% of
the phenolic mixes in our eating routine. In this study, hydroxycinnamic acid
is one of the fighting agents that can support phenolic acid in preventing the
growth of larvae.

Phenolic acid.
This is also called as phenolcarboxylic acid, kind of sweet-smelling corrosive
compound. Incorporated into that class are substances containing a phenolic
ring and a natural carboxylic corrosive capacity (C6-C1 skeleton). In this
study, phenolic acid is the component of Calamansi peel that can kill mosquito

Larvicide. This
is an insecticide that is
specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect and their most
common use is against mosquitoes. It may
be contact poisons, stomach poisons, growth regulators, or (increasingly)
biological control agents. In this study, larvicide will be used for the
experiment as Calamansi peel powder to kill mosquito larvae.


Scope and Limitations:

This study is primarily focuses on killing

The product should be applied in the
following areas: Stagnant water, old tires, puddles, containers.

The Calamansi peel powder is exclusive in
killing larvae and prohibited to be intake.

Also, our study focus on the effectiveness of
the Calamansi peels.














and Methods


this chapter, you will know the materials to be used and procedures how to make
a larvicide using Calamansi peels into powder. Statistical treatment will also be

Research Design

researchers will use Completely Randomized Pre-Test and Post-Test Experimental
Research Design. The study will use 50 mosquito larvae which where distributed
into two treatments. The two treatments will be divided into two groups for the
testing of control group (commercial larvicide) and experimental group
(Calamansi peel powder) and will be administered to the different group

Experimental Design

following groups of mosquito larvae were used for the experiment: Group 1, 25
mosquito larvae were administered with 1 teaspoon commercial larvicide (control
group), Group 2, 25 mosquito larvae were administered with 1 teaspoon Calamansi
peel powder.


mosquito larvae from San Roque, Maco, Compostela Valley were used in the study.




Collection of Plant Material

kilogram of Calamansi fruits were bought at Maco Public Market and prepared for
the peeling.

Preparation of Plant Material

researchers washed the ½ kg. Calamansi fruit and peeled it using a knife and
put it in a bowl.

Grinding of the Peeled Calamansi Fruit

peeling, they dehydrated it in the oven within 170 degree in 12 hours. Then,
they grinded it using a food processor and put it in the bottle.