CHAPTER 2 Review of Related LiteratureThis section is based on literature review. This literaturereview will cover the key words such as P.B Shelley, Syed Nasir Raza Kazmirevolutionary poets, critics views etc. 2.1 What is Literature? Literature, a body of written works.The name has commonly been applied to those ideal works of poetry and prosedistinguished by the purpose of their authors and the perceived aestheticexcellence of their performance. Literature may be classified according to avariation of systems, including language, national origin, historical period,genre, and subject matter.
Literature is hundreds of years oldand continues to be one of the most popular courses of study in high schoolsand universities around the world.”Literature adds to reality, itdoesn’t just depict it. It advances the Fundamental capabilities that everydaylife requires and gives; and in this admiration, it waters the deserts that ourlives have as of now gotten to be.” 2.
2 Whatis Poetry?It is truly especially hard to give an appropriate meaningof wonderfully constructed wording is the specialty of capturing andtranslating thoughts by the staff of creative energy; the build of admiring inthought and in expression. That is a creative vocabulary or formation, whetherdisclosed musically or in structure. Poetry is a advanved awareness of facecommunicated through importance, sound, and musical technology dialectdecisions to call a separate reaction.Poetry is not only a turning free ofsense, but instead a starting from feeling; It is not necessarily theannouncement of identity, but rather a escape from personality.
Be that as itmay, obviously, only those who have identity and thoughts really know what itintends to need to escape from these matters.2.3 Whatis Romance? Romance is the feeling we follow inrelationships.
Once you’ve experienced romance, you won’t forget it and youwon’t stop following that feeling until you find it again. In dating, romancecan spln ‘Mk,;ark chemistry like the butterflyfeeling in your stomach. In a relationship, romance can keep things fresh,exciting, breathtaking and interesting.Romance novelist Rachel Hauck says,”Romance is not about the sexualencounters but about awakening the heart.”Author David R. Shumwaystates “Romance is the part of a relationship that adds adventure andintense emotions, while also offering the possibility of finding the perfectperson for you”.2.
4Romantic PoetsToday the word ‘romantic’ evokes imagesof love and sentimentality, but the term ‘Romanticism’ has a much broadmeaning. It covers a range of developments in art, literature, music andphilosophy, reaching the late 18th and early 19th centuries as Syed Nasir RazaKazmi and P.B Shelley. Their very own poetry made individuals to think, raisetheir trust and motivate them to remain against the colonialism and otherembarrassing frames. By the goodness of their interesting verse, there writersstay in the bears of individuals. Their fictional aims are still acknowledgedand recollected.2.
4.1B.P.Shelley as a Romantic PoetThe life and works of Percy ByssheShelley represent Romanticism in both its extremes of joyful and reflectingpain, hopelessness.
The major themes are there in Shelley’s dramatic if short lifeand in his works, puzzling, inspiring, and constant: the restlessness andmeditative, the rebellion againstauthority, the interchange with nature, the power of the romantic imaginationand of poetry, the pursuit of ideal love, and the uncultivated spirit ever insearch of freedom—all of these Shelley represent in the way he lived his lifeand live on in the strong body of work that he left the world after hisimmortal death by drowning at age twenty-nine. While Shelley shares many basicthemes and symbols with his great contemporaries, he has left his peculiarstamp on Romanticism: the creationof powerful symbols in his romantic pursuit of the ideal, at the same timemodified by a disbelief. His thought is characterized by an emphasis on takingthe argumentative side of issues, even at the risk of being unwanted andridiculed. From the very beginning of his career as a published writer at theearly age of seventeen, throughout his life, and even to the present day thevery name of Shelley has evoked either the strongest vehemence or the warmestpraise, bordering on worship. More than any other English Romantic writer, withthe possible exception of his friend George Gordon, Lord Byron, Shelley’s lifeand reputation have had a history and life of their own apart from thereputation of his several works. Shelley’s six years at Eton College,which he entered at age twelve in 1804, aremore notable for his early love interests and for his early literary aims thanfor what he learned in the formal curriculum.
Shelley often found himself thesufferer of pressure as well as beingtaunted with titles such as “MadShelley” and “Shelley the atheist,” a situation alleviated sometimes by theintervention of his older cousin, Tom Medwin, who was later to become one ofShelley’s first biographers. By the endof his career at Eton he was reading widely in Plato, Pliny, and Lucretius,reading Robert Southey enthusiastically and Walter Scott less so, as well ascontinuing to read many Gothic romances. While at Eton Shelley began two jobs that wouldcontinue with intense zeal throughout his life: writing and loving, the twooften blending together so that the loving becomes the subject matter for thewriting. Although Shelley began writing poems while at Eton, some of which werepublished in 1810 in Original Poetry; by Victor and Cazire and some of whichwere not published until the 1960s as The Esdaile Notebook, it was perhapsinevitable that his first publication should have been a Gothic novel,Zastrozzi (1810). As is typical of popular Gothic romances at the time, theinnocent and modest hero and heroine,Verezzi and Julia, and the villains, Matilda and Zastrozzi, are widely drawn.
It is noteworthy that Shelley put his heretical and unbelievable opinions intothe mouth of the villain Zastrozzi, thereby airing those dangerous opinionswithout having them refrence to him as the author or narrator. Perhaps the mostsurprising thing about Zastrozzi, aside from what it may suggest aboutShelley’s psychological makeup at the time, is the fact that it was studiedtwice, one a suspiciously favorable review and the other a predictably vehementattack, the first but not the last to associate the author’s name with”immorality.”Shelley’s other publication prior toentering Oxford, Original Poetry; by Victor and Cazire—a joint effort byShelley and his sister Elizabeth—deservedly met the same fate with the criticsas Zastrozzi, one reviewer having described the volume as “songs of sentimentalnonsense, and very absurd tales of horror.” These early reviews, howeverjustified they may have been concerning his juvenilia, set the tone for histreatment by the critics throughout his career, even for alot of his bestworks. Clearly the doggerel verse does not foreshadow Shelley’s mastery of thelyric, but the subject matter of the poems is not only romantic butcharacteristically Shelleyan: poetry, love, sorrow, hope, nature, and politics.Shelley’s love interest in these poems was his cousin Harriet Grove, but theirrelationship was discouraged by their families.
When Shelley went up to UniversityCollege, Oxford, in 1810 he was already a published and reviewed writer and avoracious reader with intellectual interests far beyond the rather narrow scopeof the prescribed curriculum.During his brief stay at Oxford(less than a year), Shelley undertook three publishing ventures, the primarilytwo comparatively innocent attempts at Gothic fiction and poetry, the third aprose pamphlet, The need of Atheism (1811), which was to have such aunfortunate effect on his relationship with his family and such a dramaticeffect on his life. Already having written most of his second Gothic romance,St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian, before he entered Oxford, Shelley published itwith Stockdale, whom he assured it might sell well to the circulatinglibraries, in 1811 under the epithet “a Gentleman of the University of Oxford.”St. Irvyne is notable for the appearance of a prototypical Shelleyan poetfigure, but its two plots are hopelessly complicated and confusing, and, in theopinion of many observers, unfinished. It appears that in the early pleasure ofcollege life and other interests, Shelley misplaced hobby in following throughon what was to have been a full-blown three-decker romance.
Shelley’s attentions were given to two ladies, ElizabethHitchener, his philosophical “soul sister” and correspondent, and Harriet Westbrook,an attractive young female of sixteen whom Shelley had met his sisster Hellen.Apparently acting more from reasons of principles and from the idea thathe might mold the sensitive young Harriet than from real love for her, Shelleyswiftely determined to “rescue” her from her unjust situation at her boardingschool in Clapham. Shelley and Harriet eloped to Edinburgh, where, Shelleyviolating his principle of Godwinian free love in favor of Harriet’s happinessand recognition, they have been married on 28 or 29 August 1811. The couplechanged into quickly joined by way of Hogg, who went with them to York and,being not able to pursue Shelley’s plan for a connection between Hogg andShelley’s sister Elizabeth, right away fell in love with Harrietand tried to seduce her-a pattern he was to repeat, later falling in love withMary Shelley and later settling down with Jane Williams. Shelley’s principlesof free love could have accommodated a ménage à trois but not without thewilling consent of Harriet, so Hogg was effectively banished, and, though thebreach was partially healed, he never again enjoyed the same intimacy withShelley as he had before this incident.
The Shelley’s spent periods during 1812 and 1813 in London, whereShelley was able to make new familarity among liberal and literary circles andto renew earlier friendships such as those with Hogg and Leigh Hunt, a radical London publisher and writer who was to be a lifelongdefender of Shelley.Once Shelley became a frequent visitor to the Godwin household, it wasinevitable that he would meet the three young ladies living there: Mary Godwin, Jane (later Claire) Clairmont, and Fanny Imlay. It wasequally inevitable that all three women would fall in love with Shelley indifferent degrees and that Shelley should fall in love with Mary. As thedaughter of Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft (whose writings Shelley had alreadyread and admired), Mary represented to Shelley an ideal offspring of two great minds.Growing up in the Godwin household had exposed Mary to ideas, and she couldread freely in the books in Godwin’s library; moreover, she had an independentmind and was willing to argue with Shelley when they would go to talk by thegrave of Mary’s mother, rather than be peacefully molded by him, like Harriet.Perhaps the only real tragedy was that Shelley had not met Mary before hemarried Harriet. Although Shelley believed he was following Godwin’s principlesof free love in replacing Harriet with Mary as the object of his highest loveand in offering Harriet to live with them as his sister rather than his wife, Godwinviolently opposed the relationship, and Harriet became disconnected andcompletely shattered. Knowing that Godwin and his wife would do what they couldto stop them, Shelley and Mary, accompanied by Jane Clairmont, eloped on thenight of 27 July 1814, first to Calais, then to Paris, and on to Switzerland.
After a six weeks’ stay, the three were forced to return to England because ofmoney problems.Alastor, with its use of symbols, romantic elements, andmythic sources (the Narcissus-Echo myth in particular), marks a real advanceover Shelley’s earlier efforts in writing poetry. Thomas Love Peacock suggestedthe title to Shelley: Alastor, which refers not to the name of the Poet, but toan evil genius or avenging spirits of solitude. Certainly there are elements ofautobiography in the poem, both in the sense that Shelley felt himself to behaunted by real (the bailiffs) or imagined (assailants) spirits at varioustimes in his life and in the sense that in his personal relationships he hadmade and would again make the same mistake that the Poet makes: of seeking “invain for a prototype of his conception” of the idealized part of himself. Inthe preface to the poem Shelley cautions against this solitary quest, warningnot only that such pursuits will result in the neglect of one’s social dutiesbut that they will lead one to loneliness, alienation, and ultimately death.Shelley was deeply impressed with the power of the natural scenery,brought on by the combination of the lake and the surrounding mountains,especially Mont Blanc. Both Shelley and Byron were inspired by the associationsthe area had with Rousseau, whom they regarded as the spiritual leader ofromanticism. Shelley was deeply impressed with Rousseau’s descriptions of thisarea in Julie; ou La Nouvelle Héloïse (1761).
Shelleyalso “dosed” Byron with Wordsworth’s descriptions of nature; this influence isevident in Canto III (1816) of Childe Harold’s PilgrimageShelley toodid not come out of this Switzerland trip empty-handed. He was excited to writetwo of his finest poems: “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” and Mont Blanc. The “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” reveals theinfluence of Wordsworth, of his “Tintern Abbey” and “Ode: Intimations ofImmortality” in particular. As Wordsworth does in “Tintern Abbey,” Shelley inthe “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” suggests how his imagination and poeticsensitivity were formed by nature, and more significantly, by benefits from theshadowy power of intellectual beauty and how, in turn, he dedicated his poeticpowers to intellectual beauty. Much as Wordsworth did in his “Intimations” ode,Shelley laments his feeling that the presence of this power was stronger in hisyouth.
In Mont Blanc Shelleydiscovers a similar but even more mysterious power, but the conclusion hereaches is more dubious, less Wordsworthian. Shelley chose a familiar romantictopic for this poem: Coleridge’s “Hymn before Sun-Rise in the Vale ofChamouni,” passages from Rousseau’s Julie, Wordsworth’spoetry, and Byron’s Childe Harold and Manfred—all have in common the description of theawesome effect on the observer wrought by Mont Blanc in particular or the Alpsin general. Probablyno passage in Shelley’scanon has been more widely disputed than the final three lines of Mont Blanc:And what were thou, and earth, and stars, andsea,If to the human mind’s imaginingsSilence and solitude were vacancy?Two poems written at Este, “Lines Written among the Euganean Hills” andJulian andMaddalo, grewdirectly out of Shelley’s Italian experiences in the summer and fall of 1818.The urgent source for “Lines” is a day spent in the Euganean Hills overlookingPadua and Venice. The emotional source is Shelley’s broken heart over the deathof his childClara in September 1818 and Mary’s subsequent dejection and alienation. Thehills are “green isles …
/ In the deep wide sea of Misery,” moments ofhappiness and insight among man’s generally dark and pitiful presence. ThatShelley’s recent visit to Byron was very much in his mind is clear in histribute to him as the poet of Ocean. The imagery of the changing intensity oflight during the day reflects the poet’s visionary imagination. Shelleyconcludes this beautiful poem with a wish for domestic calmness for himself andthose he loves and a hope that the world will recognize its brotherhood and”grow young again.
Like The Witch of Atlas,Epipsychidion ,written in 1821 in Pisa, is a poem for “the esoteric few.” Drawing upon idealconcepts of love in Dante’s Vita Nuova, as wellas in Plato and Plutarch, upon political ideas of love from Godwin, and upon his own experienceswith women, Shelley wrote Epipsychidion asa kind of idealized autobiography of his love relationships. The immediateimpetus for the poem was Teresa (“Emilia”) Viviani, a bright, beautiful,nineteen-year-old Italian girl who had been placed in a convent by her fatheruntil he could arrange for her marriage.
As one whose potential for perfect love was being repressed by her father, hersituation was precisely calculated to win the sympathies of Shelley, Mary, andClaire. In his earlier days, such a situation might have prompted Shelley torescue Emilia and pursue a physical union with her, but by this time he wasconvinced that “the error … consist ed in seeking in a mortal image thelikeness of what is perhaps eternal.
” The poem’s title refers to “the soul of mysoul” or the “soul out of my soul,” a concept of affectionShelley had started to increase as earlyas his letters to Elizabeth Hitchener and which he had explained extra completelyin the “Essay on Love,” likely written in 1818 or 1819, Inside the “Essay onLove,” Shelley explains the concept of the epipsyche as “a miniature … of ourcomplete self ..
., the right prototype of everything splendid or adorable thatwe’re able of conceiving as belonging tothe nature of guy.” Inside the system of cosmic symbols Shelley developsin Epipsychidion, Emilia, Shelley’s epipsyche, is theSun, Shelley is the Earth, Mary, the Moon, and Claire, the Comet at the sametime as the souls of Emilia and Shelley are united, those of Mary and Clairestill have an impact on his soul.
“Shelley’s populruty after his loss of life changed into formed by way ofidentical extremes of worship and hatred that he and his writings had elicitedduring his life. Among the Victorians, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Kingsley, Walter Bagehot, and Ralph Waldo Emerson denigrated Shelley, and Samuel Clemens was neverable to forgive Shelley for his treatment of Harriet. Matthew Arnold issued the most memorable and destructive declarationon Shelley: “stunning and ineffectual angel, beating inside the void hisluminous wings in vain.” But the list of those who admired him or were inspiredby way of him is longer and perhaps even greater distinguished: BenjaminDisraeli, who created a Shelleyan protagonist in his novel Venetia (1837); Robert Browning, who in his early poem Pauline (1833)paid tribute to Shelley as the “Sun-treader”; Alfred Tennyson, who along side different “Cambridge Apostles” argued themerits of Shelley as opposed to Byron with Oxford debaters; William MichaelRossetti, who edited Shelley’s works and introduced a memoir; William Butler Yeats, whose poetry well known shows the impact of Shelley’svisionary poetics and his symbol making; H. S. Salt and Edward andEleanor Marx Aveling (Marx’s daughter), all of whom claimed Shelley as aprototypical Marxist; and Bernard Shaw, who fashionable Shelley’s radicalismand emulated his vegetarianism.
In addition, Edgar Allan Poe, Algernon Charles Swinburne, George Eliot, George Lewes, and Thomas Hardy all admired Shelley and followed some of hisideas.Shelley’s thoughts, embodied in his verse, his prose, and his existence,remain as a challenge to the servile reputation of authority and as a challengeto us to achieve our maximum capability—to always aspire to higher desires forourselves and for society.