CHAPTER process towards the allocation of development resources

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction of the studyGovernance refers to the sound exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to manage a country’s resources for development. It involves the institutionalization of a system through which citizens, institutions, organizations, and groups in a society articulate their interests, exercise their rights, and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective good “(Country Governance Assessment, 2005). The governance system is there to ensure that political, social, economic and cultural priorities are based on society consensus and the voice of the poor people are heard in decision making process towards  the allocation of development resources and efforts (UNDP,1997).1.2 Theoretical framework guiding village structure1.2.1 The theory of depoliticisation  This theory was developed by John Harriss, Profesor of a London school of economics (2001), he reveals about participation of citizens in making decisions of  social capital, trust and civil society empowerment as regarded as weapons for political and socio-economic change in the society, this could be achieved if citizens appear in meeting and all issues pattern their area.  He directed further, against movement of the political left for progressive socio-economic and political change which identify the root change in class difference. He argued that, there is a move to reduce poverty to a technical problem, and by providing technical solution to suffering of powerless and oppressed people. The hegemonic problems development becomes the principles means through which the problem is depoliticized. 1.2.2 Theory of democratic elitism This theory was developed by Joseph Schumpeter (1943), the author contended that, in the past, the policy of increasing citizen participation in decision making process has found that in favor not only with activist, students and consumers group but also with politician with several political persuasions. The level of citizen participation has become a popular rallying cry of citizens groups, this theory of democracy which draws attention of western political theorists assign to it in completely minimal role. The writers of democratic theory in America contends that the dismissal ideal significant public participation in decision making process as unattainable due to several reasons.1.3 Governance structure at street levelThe street government exist under article 145(1)-(2) and article 146(1)- (2)(a-c) of the local government establishment Act No 15 of 1984 with the purpose transferring authority and brought service near to the people. This functions under street assembly whereby residents of 18 years of age and above have ability and power to formulate and approved by-law of the respective street. However the street assembly works under chairperson and his/her committees.In accordance with local authority the street assembly work through committees and dealt with specific matters such as social services, economic affairs, safety and security, financing and planning and budgetary allocation to the responsible department. The village assembly is expected to meet at least four times a year to discuss issue related to elections of several bodies and common issues related to development affairs of the village government (Max, 1991). As per law it should be four times a year but sometime it might be more or less regarded to the budget and orders from Central government. Regarding village/street is the lowest administrative structure at the district level with mandate to monitor all issues at their level, democracy is seen as important institution for promote accountability and transparency among the leaders and citizen from village government to the central government level. The organization which is responsible registering village is called village council, the village council is consisted a chairperson elected by village assembly and sub-village-village chairperson, health workers, head teachers, villagers and other official function in the village context (Njunwa,2005).1.4 Citizen participation in decision makingThe Tanzania legislation considers citizens participation to be among principle of good governance. Decision making rules was stipulated in the Local government Act No 8 of 1982. According to this Act leaders have mandate to enhancing effective involvement. The citizen participation is key engine to development since it enables community members to participate fully in implementing activities such as administrative decision-making, agenda-setting, and policy formulation for the overall benefit of their societies. Good Governance system enables community members to improve the quality of decisions making processes and policies formulated by tapping into more extensive sources of information and viewpoints (Nardini, 2004).Research conducted by Mwakasangula, at al (2015), reveals that citizens’ involvement in decision making process helps to get better result. This can be achieved if leaders have ability to make citizens willingly give their opinions and suggestions towards decisions patterning development.According to Mbilinga chairperson of Mwananyamala kwa Kopa street, he explained that citizens are participated in decisions made though the turn up to those meeting were not always good and no attendance of participation because there is no by- law to force them. 1.4.1 Importance of citizen participation in decision makingIt helps to improve the quality of decisions made and policies formulated by tapping into more extensive and alternative sources of information from credible media and government bodies which is responsible to store and dissemination information to the people (Fischhoff, 2008).It enhance responsive to the needs of their communities. In regard to the community’s input in policy, planning and budgeting processes, citizen’s views are being considered as important for attainment and promotion of the socio-economic development and hence ensuring that their expectations are being met and their priorities are being addressed accordingly (Sotta, 1990).It plays crucial role on promote active public participation helps sustain the legitimacy of the decisions made. Community members are more likely to accept the decisions and to feel that they are fair more so than if they have not been involved in the decision-making process (Fischhoff, 2008).It enhances transparency and accountability which in turn helps to improve the overall quality of governance. This will enable the members of the community to set the long-term planning and policies as engine for attainment of the overall socio-economic development. Therefore, transparency and accountability is seen is engine for enhance citizen participation and managed to make decision making in regard to their expectation to fulfill their priorities and needs (Malunde,2008).1.4.2 Applicability of Constitution on citizen participation processA constitution says In most cases, Tanzania’s constitution basically guarantees participation: ‘Every citizen has the right and freedom to participate fully in the process leading to the decision on matters affecting him, his well-being or the nation’ (Article 21(1).1.5 Mechanisms are available and applied to hold leaders into accountHolding local government leaders to account is an action of punishment of those leaders who have failed to meet the expected duties and responsibilities.• Accountability It has been seen that the long chain of hierarchy levels generates an environment subject to corruption than focusing on generating performance because all people in the leadership chain are generally play the similar role. On the other hand, local people have little awareness of what they should expect from village government at any level because the fundamental role of villages representative is just to lead people in development issues such as land allocation, water supply, school, roads and hospital/dispensaries construction. Chairperson is elected by citizen, and those people have mandate to make him/her accountable and sometimes take him/her out of the position by vote of no confidence (Njunwa, 2005& Mustafa 2008). Also, Mbilinga responded the same by saying for Civil Servant the law used to employ him/her will used to make him accountable and chairperson the citizen with vote for no confidence to the leader.   In addition, the degree of accountability can be measured by considering the degree of people inclusion on development issues and participating openly on working together with village government in order to bringing their own development.Therefore, the citizen have power to hold elected leaders to account because the citizen is one who can fast identified and discovered the weakness of his or her leaders in the village. Then after discovering the weakness of the leaders, a citizen has the right to present it for further displinary action in the village meeting then the finally decision can be taken so that further action taken. It largely true that citizen have full mandate to hold leaders to account (Mutahaba, 2012).• TransparencyThe transparency agenda enable the government to disseminate information to the citizen. This will enable the citizen to be aware on the issues that are being done by the government and can able to assessing, analyze and criticize the government when misuse pubic resources rampantly. In the case of Mwananyamala Kwa Kopa the policy of transparency has mainly helps the citizen to hold the leaders to account when he fails to implement what he promised to implement.1.6 Village Assembly as village Bunge, how effective it is?1.6.1 Village Assembly In the case of Mwananyamala Kwa Kopa the membership of the village assembly consists of all people who are usually resident in the village and have attained the apparent age of 18years. Then, these citizen have power to participate in village matters and responsible for making decision in regard to their problems, social needs and plan for attain development.1.6.2 Function of village assembly The village assembly is regarded as supreme authority on all matters in regard to affairs of the village. The village assembly primarily responsible for the election of the village council and the removal from the council of any or all of the members of the council, including the hamlet chairpersons whom it does not elect (Max, 1991). In regarding to the local government act of 1982 section 24 states “there shall be village assembly for every village”.1.6.3 The effectiveness of the village Assembly1.6.3.1 Village government play an important role of enhance openness to village governmentThe village leaders are obliged to present report to the village assembly in regard to all activities done by the village government over the three months from the last village assembly to the current meeting as it’s done at the Mwananyamala Kwa Kopa. On the other hand, leaders need to communicate periodically to the village assembly whatever have been done by them quarterly such as providing budget and financial reports in regard to expenditure and income. (Max, 1991). Enhance the degree of local people participation in decision makingIn the case study of Kwa Kopa, one of the fundamental roles, the village assembly has to ensure the village government through participation of village residents in all matters related to the development at the village level. In that sitting village residents get a chance to engage in matters concerning them such as analyzing the village situation, asks different questions and explanation to village governors, discuss different problems facing their villagers as well as identifying different opportunities the village has and set priorities depending to the number of problems and the resources they possesses (Kaminyonge, 2008).  1.7 What needs to be done to improve governance in the village level?1.7.1 Strengthening citizen participation at local levelCitizen participation in local governance involves ordinary citizens assessing their own needs and participating in local project planning and budget monitoring. It is important for improving public resource management and reducing corruption, by making public servants and political leaders accountable to the people. For citizen participation to work, transparency of government information is needed, as well as the inclusion of members into decision-making from groups whose concerns are being addressed. Therefore, legislation considers the participation of the villagers to be an important element and engine of good governance system (Mwakasangula et al. 2015).1.7.2 To enable citizen to participate fully in policy making processes together with village assembly The process of formulate any policies at village level should be people centered responsibility and opinions needs should be given by the people in regard to the people’s needs, management of the resources and development should be discussing and come appropriate policy framework which focus on solving and improving the current problems the villages. Then, the amendment of policy at village level needs to include a section that allows village councils to analyze and adapt policies in consultation with village assemblies in order to increase citizen ownership and ability to demand accountability in case of poor implementations by leaders. Therefore, this strategic plan will increase citizen participation in policy-making, which will position them well to demand accountability in case such policies and programs are ill implemented.1.7.3 Provision of seminars and workshop on governance issuesThis can be done by the non-governmental organization in collaboration with local government. The role of Non-governmental organization is ensure the local people are participating in workshop and seminars, also another responsibility of NGOs is to educate the local people on governance issues and be able to assess their implication in the daily life. On the other hand, local government play fundamental role on informing the local people through the public notice board and meeting conducting at the village level as the result will help the villagers to participate in the meeting and workshop intended to be conducted at the village.1.7.4 Implementation of plans according to street One among the challenges in Kwa Kopa is when they took ideas to the council its implementation delayed and made people feel that their leaders are not responsible while it is not them. Some of these planned previous the citizens devote their time and energy to do some jobs like making brick for construction, dig the tunnel for school builds   but now people are busy doing their business. 1.7.5 BudgetThis had being observed as very big challenge in making sure that the meeting is conducted as scheduled, because all the expenditure of the meeting are coming from street collections and donors. So whenever they fail to get money meetings won’t be as planned. In connection to that the street offices lack even stationeries which is used for their daily basis as a result people have being asked to brought papers for any documents or pay for which is against law.1.7.6 Different ideologyIn Street Council the leaders might came from different political party in which most of the people are not, for that case challenge might arise because citizens from different party will not sometimes provide full support with feeling of doing that is against their ideology, while in real sense it is just development for both not for a particular party.   RecommendationsThe governance at grassroots level seem to have a lot of challenges which make them not to perform well their duties, there are several strategies suggested;-  influencing the Municipal Council to open up economic activities for each street council, so as to raise for different activities.Secondly, the Municipal Council should implement what the Street Council ask but not what they think because their priority may differ, this could be successful only by involving those leaders of grassroots’ level example Mwananyamala Kwa Kopa might not need dispensary because they have Mwananyamala Hospital nearby.Thirdly, Municipal should involve Street Council before